Toxic effects

Overdose

Overdose with valproate can result in heart block, coma, and death. Haemodialysis may be useful in clearing the drug rapidly, and naloxone may reverse the central nervous system depressant effects.(3)

Pregnancy

Valproate is known to increase the risk of neural tube defects (such as spina bifida) to approximately 1 to 2 per cent of pregnancies when administered in the first trimester. Other reported congenital anomalies include craniofacial defects and cardiovascular malformations. Valproate is found in human breast milk, at approximately 1 to 10 per cent of serum concentrations, but its effects on the nursing child are unknown. (6)

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