The rise of individualism

So the pessimistic static concept of mental illness current within the asylum became opposed by a more optimistic dynamic concept in which change and development within the mind could lead to better balance or even complete cure. Psychodynamic theories are primarily concerned with the psychology of the individual, and could not have been developed in pre-industrial societies, which have little perception of a person as a separate entity rather than a member of a tribe or family. The growth of individualism and self-consciousness can be traced by studying the dictionary. For example, most of the compound words which combine the word sell with other words, like self-sufficient, self-knowledge, self-determination, self- conscious, entered the language during the seventeenth century. A quotation from Southey dated 1809 is the first example of the use of the word autobiography given by the Oxford English Dictionary. The modern psychoanalyst is concerned with making coherent sense out of his patient's life history by encouraging him to produce a detailed verbal autobiography. This procedure could only be undertaken or thought worthwhile in a society which valued individualism.

The change from static to process concepts could also be perceived in ideas about society. In 1848, Mrs Alexander had written in the hymn All Things Bright and Beautiful:

AlfredAdler C.G-Jung

'Shell-shock'

The rich man in his castle, The poor man at his gate,

God made them, high or lowly, And order'd their estate.

Modern congregations find that singing this hymn is embarrassing unless this verse is omitted.

The dynamic view of society can be illustrated by Karl Marx's famous sentence, written in 1888:

Philosophers have previously offered various interpretations of the world. Our business is to change it. (3)

Although Marx was not introspective, whilst Freud was intensely so, the two men shared certain characteristics. Both were dogmatically certain that their discoveries were right, and both regarded ordinary people with distaste or even contempt. Marx dismissed the majority of the people he met as either fools or sycophants; Freud wrote that most human beings were trash.

Funny Wiring Autism

Funny Wiring Autism

Autism is a developmental disorder that manifests itself in early childhood and affects the functioning of the brain, primarily in the areas of social interaction and communication. Children with autism look like other children but do not play or behave like other children. They must struggle daily to cope and connect with the world around them.

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