The language of the group

Foulkes suggested that 'symptoms, in themselves autistic and unsuitable for sharing, exert, for this very reason, an increasing pressure upon the individual to express them'.(79) The group equips the person to transform the mute and inchoate language of symptoms into a socially understandable form of discourse. There is increasing interest in characterizing group phases in terms of the language that predominates, using theory from discourse analysis and the Foulksian concept of free-floating discussion.

It is possible to differentiate between three primary forms of speech that arise in the matrix of any group. At the most basic level, monologue—speaking alone (with or without an audience)—is a form of individual self-expression. At the next level, dialogue—a conversation between two people—is the form of communication that distinguishes a bipersonal exchange. And at the third level, discourse— the speech pattern of three or more people—allows the free interaction of all its participants in a flexible and complex exchange that distinguishes the communication of a group. These patterns of speech are universal cultural forms arising in all communication and are present in the life of every group, although in no set order. Monologue can be understood as a soliloquy, dialogue as the resolution of opposites or the search for intimacy, and discourse as the work of a chorus. The use of free-floating discussion allows a pattern of exchange to move freely between these different speech forms, each of which constitutes a distinctive type of communication. It is through this movement—from monologue through dialogue to discourse and back again—that the group-analytic method comes into its own, creating an arena in which the dialectic between the psyche and the social world helps to refashion both.(l3)

Break Free From Passive Aggression

Break Free From Passive Aggression

This guide is meant to be of use for anyone who is keen on developing a better understanding of PAB, to help/support concerned people to discover various methods for helping others, also, to serve passive aggressive people as a tool for self-help.

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