The impact of criminal victimization

Gillian C. Mezey and Ian Robbins

General impact of.victimization

Psychological sequelae of .crime Physical.sequelae ofcrime Responses following..specific .criminal acts

Support services. and ..t reatment ..interventions

Conclusion

Chapter. References

Estimating the extent of criminal victimization depends on the methodological approach that is adopted, the questions being asked, and the population being surveyed. Not all violence is necessarily recognized as a crime, and similarly not all crimes create victims, but occur through a process of mutual consent. Most crime differentially targets and damages individuals who are poor, disempowered, and marginalized within society. Individuals are often victimized because of what they represent rather than because of who they are. Many hate crimes fall into this category: homophobic attacks, sexual assault, violence against prostitutes, and racial violence.

The most recent British Crime Survey(1) documented a total of 19.1 million crimes in 1995 committed against individuals and their property, an increase in 83 per cent since 1981. The largest increase was in violent crimes, including domestic violence, which identified three times more incidents in 1995 than in 1981. The British Crime Survey found that most victims do not report to the police; thus police recorded figures, as reflected in the criminal statistics, are likely to underrepresent the extent of criminal victimization. Similarly, not all individuals in the population are at equal risk. Around one in six of all incidents of criminal victimization against Asians and African-Caribbeans was believed by the victim to be racially motivated.(2) Women are more vulnerable to domestic violence and younger people are more at risk of crime than elderly people. Men are more likely to report physical assault by a stranger whilst women are significantly more at risk of intimate and sexual violence. (3)

The experience of crime and the perception of crime as possible or probable has an impact on the individual's lifestyle and level of fear; women and elderly people are more fearful of crime than young men, even though in reality, the risk of violent victimization is greater for young men. This may be because of the greater perceived adverse consequences of victimization and greater vulnerability in women and elderly people. (4)

Funny Wiring Autism

Funny Wiring Autism

Autism is a developmental disorder that manifests itself in early childhood and affects the functioning of the brain, primarily in the areas of social interaction and communication. Children with autism look like other children but do not play or behave like other children. They must struggle daily to cope and connect with the world around them.

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