Phenomenological psychiatry also developed in France, paralleling its development in Germany, particularly in Paris, under the leadership of Pelicier, and in Marseilles, where it was associated with Sutter, Tatossian, Azorin, Giudicelli, and Naudin. France is one of the most important centres of phenomenological research today, as can be seen in the periodical L'Art de Comprendre, edited by Philippe Forget and Georges Charbonneau. Pelicier's work is far reaching and characterized by a clinical point of view combined with important ethical concerns. He has touched on almost all themes in psychiatry, with contributions on anxiety, depression, addictions, dementia, and psychosomatic illnesses.(33) His method could be described as being between Jaspers and Husserl. Like Jaspers, he remains close to the subjective experience of the concrete patient, but like Husserl he searches for the essential characteristics and invariant elements within the complexity of psychopathological facts. However, he does not pretend to reach the very constitution of the acts of consciousness in the Husserlian sense. Tatossian's book Phénoménologie des Psychoses^1) provided the first systematic review of knowledge in the field of psychoses, including an introduction, for French readers, to the work of German authors from Binswanger to Blankenburg. One cannot conclude this brief overview of French phenomenology without mentioning Naudin's extraordinary book Phénoménologie et Psychiatrie: Les Voix et la Chose,(35> which is the most complete phenomenological analysis of hallucination in the Husserlian sense. For Naudin, as earlier for Zutt, hallucination is not a disturbance of perception but of intentionality itself: 'It is an insoluble dehumanization which lays bare the very "phenomenality" of intentional processes'. Later he adds:(35)
Transparent and with a single voice, the hallucinated other is characterized by its lack of reciprocity. This other is not an alter ego, since it is lived [by the patient] in the immediate present. Everything occurs as if the processes of perception, which put things in perspective through a succession of schemas, were inverted: here, the idea appears as a whole, all of a sudden.
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