The discontinuity version

Powerful forces shaped the construction of dementia praecox and schizophrenia during the nineteenth century. For example, 'association psychology' provided the basis for the metaphor of 'splitting' and 'faculty psychology' offered a template (the mind as a bundle of intellectual, emotional, and volitional functions) in terms of which the new mental disorders were defined. 'Neo-Kantianism', in turn, supplied a model of thinking which was to become crucial to 'formal thought disorder'—a central 'symptom' of schizophrenia. Lastly, 'evolutionary theory' provided an explanatory framework. For example, according to Kraepelin, (8) the disease process underlying dementia praecox activated a set of 'pre-formed reactions' (responsible for the clinical picture), all of which were biological and evolutionary in origin. Likewise, Bleuler'9) suggested that the Schnauzkrampf of schizophrenia was related to the protrusion of lips seen in chimpanzees (to 'express dissatisfaction').

This chapter is based on the view that ideas about mental symptoms and diseases originate in 'convergences'. By this term is meant the coming together of a term (newly coined or recycled), a behaviour (putatively related to a brain disturbance or to an allegorical human action), and a concept (as a carrier of definitions and explanations and rules).(l0ll) These components will be considered in relation to schizophrenia, starting with terms and concepts and then considering behaviour.

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