Substance abuse

Most psychoactive substances affect sleep, either as a result of acute ingestion/intoxication or withdrawal. (5,52) In general, drugs of abuse tend to cause either sedation or stimulation; withdrawal effects are usually opposite of acute effects. Patients with histories of substance abuse frequently complain of sleep abnormalities, even after prolonged periods of abstinence; this may be related to chronic and irreversible effects of drugs on sleep, and/or the possibility that sleep disturbance may indicate a vulnerability for substance abuse. The effects of some of the more commonly abused substances are reviewed below, although it is important to keep in mind that many patients abuse multiple substances, often with differing effects on sleep.

Funny Wiring Autism

Funny Wiring Autism

Autism is a developmental disorder that manifests itself in early childhood and affects the functioning of the brain, primarily in the areas of social interaction and communication. Children with autism look like other children but do not play or behave like other children. They must struggle daily to cope and connect with the world around them.

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