Separation and loss

Since attachment processes are so central to children's early social and emotional development, much attention has been given to the impact of separations from attachment figures. The effects of bereavement in childhood, and the implications of separations associated with adoption and with foster and residential care are examined in later chapters. Less permanent separations are undoubtedly distressing for children, but it is now known that their longer-term impact need not be severe, and depends on a variety factors. The age of the child, the quality of prior relationships, the way the separation is managed, and the quality of subsequent care all seem central to effects. Single hospital admissions, for example, are not generally associated with any increased risk for psychiatric disorder. Multiple admissions may be, especially if one of the separations occurred in the toddler period. This increased risk is more marked in discordant families, suggesting that effects are mediated through an adverse impact on later family relationships.

Increases in maternal employment have prompted extensive research on the impact of alternative childcare early in children's development. Recent evidence shows that childcare per se is neither a risk nor a benefit for the development of infant-mother attachment.(7) It can, however, be important for particular groups of children. Specifically, high-quality childcare is associated with more secure attachments among children whose mothers are less sensitive to their needs, while poor-quality care, more than minimal amounts of care, or more than one care arrangement in the first 15 months leads to less secure attachments in that same group. Later, high-quality childcare is associated with better language comprehension and school readiness, and with fewer behaviour problems.

Break Free From Passive Aggression

Break Free From Passive Aggression

This guide is meant to be of use for anyone who is keen on developing a better understanding of PAB, to help/support concerned people to discover various methods for helping others, also, to serve passive aggressive people as a tool for self-help.

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