Second World

In Britain and the United States during the Second World War, an appreciation of group psychology led to a wide range of innovations, the most important of which included the following:

• the use of group methods for selection and allocation of work responsibilities

• studies of group morale

• the integration of psychiatric knowledge in the management of large groups through the role of the command psychiatrist

• the treatment of acute and prolonged battle stress and rehabilitation of returned prisoners of war.

Clinicians used the opportunities created within army psychiatry to apply methods developed in the prewar years. (27) Brigadier J.R. Rees, Director of the Tavistock Clinic in the 1930s, largely created this opportunity in the British Army. His Tavistock colleagues formed an 'invisible college' and were responsible for signal achievements in the advances in selection and treatment. (28>

Foremost amongst these was Northfield, the military hospital near Birmingham where S.H. Foulkes was a senior medical officer.(2 ^ He had been amongst the group of refugee clinicians admitted to the United Kingdom from Nazi Germany and was both a psychiatrist and a psychoanalyst. He brought with him from the Frankfurt Institute the revised understanding of Freudian theory that was also to prove influential in the United States. In the New School for Social Research, New York, and in the work of neo-Freudians, like Erich Fromm and Frieda Fromm-Reichman, and social theorists like Adorno, Marcuse, and Norbert Elias, psychoanalysis and Marxist theory were brought into a new creative relationship.(31) In the United Kingdom Foulkes first developed his approach to group therapy in Exeter before the Second World War and was able to apply it successfully on a large scale to the treatment of war neuroses at Northfield. Kennard gives a full account of these developments in Chapter6,3.9,

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