Impairment in social relationships, dysfunctional cognition, gender, economic status, and temperament have been suggested as involved in the emergence of mood disorders. However, empirical studies on psychosocial factors of patients with affective disorders examine psychosocial features assessed after recovery from and/or at the time of episodes of affective disorder. These retrospective studies might not be able to distinguish between premorbid psychosocial patterns and those which result from previous episodes of illness. Further, longitudinal studies focusing on the role of psychosociological factors have involved predictions of recurrence or exacerbation of symptomatology in previously affected people, but not regarding the onset of the diseases. Thus, the demonstration of temporal antecedence to the initial onset of affective disorder is extremely difficult. (61> Thus, the conclusions in terms of aetiological psychosocial factor are limited.
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