Parents and carers should be involved as partners in the management plan to avoid alienation of the family and to facilitate compliance with treatment. (73) Parent education and counselling regarding the nature of the mental retardation and associated emotional and behavioural problems may encourage the parents to cope with their grief, co-operate with management, and develop their own adaptive responses. Involvement of teachers and other carers also facilitates management. More specific family therapy exploring communication and patterns of interaction, conflict resolution, and beliefs may be helpful; however, outcome research is required. (74> Parent involvement in the delivery of speech and physiotherapy and behaviour-modification programmes is indispensable. (75)
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