Opiates heroin methadone and buprenorphine

Adam R. Winstock and John Strang

Neurobiology of opiates Route of administration Heroin metabolism Patterns of use Epidemiology The. effects of.. opiates Heroin (and other opiate). withdrawal Physical..complications Hepatitis

Opiate overdose

Psychiatric .comorbidity Social effects Synthetic opiates Methadone

Buprenpirp1hiineiM (Temge.sic, ..S,u,b,u,t,e,x)

Assessment .of.. the.opiat.e ..user Confirmation.. ofdependence

Management.. ofopiate. .dependence

Pharmacp|lpgica|..interyentipns ..for..1opiate, ..users:. .fflai,n.t£na„n.c,e...and...wi.thdrawal Prescribing..drugs..tp ..opiate-.. .addicts The..ranqe.. pf..se,ryi£e. .pro.vid.ers. ..a.n.dJh.e. .Mp.asi.of. .treatment Specia,l...gro,,ups

Outcome

Chapter. References

Opium, derived from the ripe seed capsule of the opium poppy (Papaversomniferum), has been used for its analgesic and euphoriant effects since antiquity, with Sumerian ideograms of about 4000 BC referring to the poppy as the 'plant of joy'. The extract contains the alkaloid opiate analgesics morphine and codeine. Heroin (diamorphine) is the most commonly abused opiate, usually in the form of black-market powder which is usually injected or smoked ('chasing the dragon'), but is also sometimes snorted. Street purity varies widely (usually 30-60 per cent) and the cost is somewhere between £40 and £90 per gram, depending on purity, type, and geographical location. Daily consumption is commonly in the region of 0.25 to 2 g.

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