Adam R. Winstock and John Strang
Neurobiology of opiates Route of administration Heroin metabolism Patterns of use Epidemiology The. effects of.. opiates Heroin (and other opiate). withdrawal Physical..complications Hepatitis
Psychiatric .comorbidity Social effects Synthetic opiates Methadone
Buprenpirp1hiineiM (Temge.sic, ..S,u,b,u,t,e,x)
Assessment .of.. the.opiat.e ..user Confirmation.. ofdependence
Pharmacp|lpgica|..interyentipns ..for..1opiate, ..users:. .fflai,n.t£na„n.c,e...and...wi.thdrawal Prescribing..drugs..tp ..opiate-.. .addicts The..ranqe.. pf..se,ryi£e. .pro.vid.ers. ..a.n.dJh.e. .Mp.asi.of. .treatment Specia,l...gro,,ups
Opium, derived from the ripe seed capsule of the opium poppy (Papaversomniferum), has been used for its analgesic and euphoriant effects since antiquity, with Sumerian ideograms of about 4000 BC referring to the poppy as the 'plant of joy'. The extract contains the alkaloid opiate analgesics morphine and codeine. Heroin (diamorphine) is the most commonly abused opiate, usually in the form of black-market powder which is usually injected or smoked ('chasing the dragon'), but is also sometimes snorted. Street purity varies widely (usually 30-60 per cent) and the cost is somewhere between £40 and £90 per gram, depending on purity, type, and geographical location. Daily consumption is commonly in the region of 0.25 to 2 g.
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Autism is a developmental disorder that manifests itself in early childhood and affects the functioning of the brain, primarily in the areas of social interaction and communication. Children with autism look like other children but do not play or behave like other children. They must struggle daily to cope and connect with the world around them.