Nonnicotine pharmacological treatments

Many other drugs to aid smoking cessation have been tested, but most have so far failed to yield evidence of efficacy (including most anxiolytics and antidepressants that have been tested), while in others such as clonidine signs of promise have been offset by an unacceptable side-effect profile. Recently, the drug bupropion, an atypical antidepressant with some noradrenergic and dopaminergic activity, became the first non-nicotine medicine licensed for smoking cessation in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The mechanism of action appears not to be related to the drug's antidepressant effect but rather to pathways common to addiction. Clinical trials, among non-depressed smokers, have shown clear advantage over placebo,(60) and there is evidence that bupropion and the nicotine skin patch have additive effects in enhancing outcomes. (61)

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