Neuropsychology

All the studies show that there are no significant postoperative changes in global IQ measures. Detailed psychometric investigations report both improvements (27) and deficits*1. ,2,29) in particular tests.

Altogether the studies demonstrate decreased performance in the early postoperative period followed by a recovery, but where the final general level of function is affected mostly by the disease state. Specific decrements in function depend upon the particular operative procedure (see Malizia (6) for a detailed review). Electroencephalogram and psychophysiology

Early postoperative increases in frontal slow-wave activity have been demonstrated in stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy and stereotactic anterior capsulotomy. (30,,31) This may relate to a good clinical outcome, indicating that the lesions have a profound immediate effect on frontothalamic loops and that the extent of this effect has a predictive value on the final outcome, despite the fact that clinical improvement does not usually manifest itself for a number of months after surgery.

Interestingly, in stereotactic limbic leucotomy the lesion site in the orbitofrontal cortex is selected by observing changes in autonomic response upon cortical stimulation with a probe at the time of surgery. The area of orbitofrontal cortex where these changes can be localized is precise, as moving the probe by 4 mm abolishes the responses. Furthermore, similar changes can be induced by stimulating particular areas of the anterior cingulate (32) and of the amygdala, the insula, and the hypothalamus, thus implying a widely distributed network of cortical modulation of autonomic function.

Break Free From Passive Aggression

Break Free From Passive Aggression

This guide is meant to be of use for anyone who is keen on developing a better understanding of PAB, to help/support concerned people to discover various methods for helping others, also, to serve passive aggressive people as a tool for self-help.

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