For many children, exposure to these differing types of adversity will covary. Stressed families frequently live in poor neighbourhoods, where schools are under pressure and peer groups deviant. Early epidemiological findings suggested that isolated single risks have relatively little impact on disorder, but that rates rise sharply when risk factors combine. More recently, studies have shown that child, sociocultural, parenting, and peer-related risks each add uniquely to the prediction of behaviour problems. In addition, the total number of risks a child faces explains further variance in outcomes.
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