Gerolamo Cardano (1501-1576), in his treatise Liber de Ludo Alae (The Book on Games of Chance),(1) used his own experience of gambling to formulate the laws of probability. He was a physician and scholar in Milan, who gambled heavily himself. In the chapter on 'The utility of play, and losses', he drew attention to:

...the danger that it may become a settled habit...For then a man is carried away into playing for high that he no longer has control of his own mind. As a result he throws out large sums of money and may be said to abandon them rather than play for them.

Cardano stated that gambling 'ought to be discussed by a medical doctor like one of the incurable diseases' and referred to it as a 'natural evil'. However, at a behavioural level, gambling is an activity with the following elements.

1. A contract between two or more people, which is based on a forecast of the outcome of an uncertain event involving random processes.

2. Property, referred to as the stake, is transferred between those taking part, so that some gain at the expense of others.

3. The property transfer depends on the outcome or result of the uncertain event, which has been forecast.

4. Participation is voluntary and not necessarily related to gaining property, but may be used to obtain an experience.

Cardano emphasized that, 'the most fundamental principle of all in gambling is simply equal conditions'. However, gambling is usually organized on a commercial basis with a promoter, who may be at a distance, as in fruit/slot machine gambling. Promoters make their profit by setting the odds in their favour, with an inbuilt disadvantage to the others taking part.

Break Free From Passive Aggression

Break Free From Passive Aggression

This guide is meant to be of use for anyone who is keen on developing a better understanding of PAB, to help/support concerned people to discover various methods for helping others, also, to serve passive aggressive people as a tool for self-help.

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