Contusions are often associated with localized haemorrhage into the brain. Scattered intracerebral haemorrhages are also often found at the interface between grey and white matter and are thought to be associated with diffuse axonal injury (see below). A large isolated haematoma suggests that a blood vessel has ruptured.
In very severe injury haemorrhages are also found round the aqueduct in the brainstem, perhaps caused by distortion of the brainstem as a result of cerebral herniation into the posterior fossa due to raised intracranial pressure. They are associated with the vegetative state or death.
Closed head injuries
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