Parathyroid hormone mobilizes calcium from bone, induces renal reabsorption of calcium, increases renal clearance of inorganic phosphate, and promotes intestinal reabsorption of calcium. Hypoparathyroidism commonly causes hypocalcaemia. Hypoparathyroidism can result from autoimmune destruction of the parathyroid glands, removal of the parathyroids, disruption of the glands' blood supply, tumour, or neck irradiation. Symptoms depend on the level of blood calcium and the rate at which hypocalcaemia develops. The most frequent symptoms are caused by neuromuscular irritability and include paraesthesias, carpal pedal spasm, laryngospasm, blepharospasm, and bronchospasm.(70) Cardiovascular manifestations include prolonged Q-T interval, heart block, and congestive heart failure. The most common neuropsychiatric symptoms and signs are seizures, EEG abnormalities, increased intracranial pressure, and extrapyramidal symptoms. The mainstays of treatment are calcium and vitamin D. Neuropsychiatric syndromes should resolve with the normalization of serum calcium.

Coping with Asthma

Coping with Asthma

If you suffer with asthma, you will no doubt be familiar with the uncomfortable sensations as your bronchial tubes begin to narrow and your muscles around them start to tighten. A sticky mucus known as phlegm begins to produce and increase within your bronchial tubes and you begin to wheeze, cough and struggle to breathe.

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