Further texts in the family of documents

Reference tables ('cross-walks') are provided for valid comparison of the diagnostic categories in ICD-8, ICD-9, and ICD-10. Despite their very similar diagnoses, there is a fundamental difference between ICD-8/ICD-9 and ICD-10 in that operationalized diagnosis is used in the latter. Nevertheless, comparability has to be assured in the compilation of statistics. This is not difficult for disorders like catatonic schizophrenia or obsessive-compulsive neurosis, but it is difficult to translate the ICD-9 diagnosis of neurotic depression (300.4) into an ICD-10 diagnosis. Usually dysthymia is chosen (F34.1), but there are other diagnoses that may be even more suitable. Another problem is identifying which ICD-8/ICD-9 diagnoses correspond to the currently common diagnoses of panic disorder or somatization disorder. Therefore the reference tables produced by WHO are not an automatic translation from the old to the new system, but provide only help and guidelines. It must be emphasized that a change from one system of diagnosis to another is only possible on an individual patient basis.

Lexica for psychopathology and other terms of ICD-9, ICD-10, and transcultural psychiatry have been produced by WHO.

Casebooks have been developed to provide examples of the application of the diagnostic criteria for the individual doctor or as a help in diagnostic seminars. The English language casebook contains 100 cases, each well structured and described, systematically covering the whole of Chapter F (Ustun et al. 1986).(49) The German casebook^0) contains case histories whose styles differ depending on the author.

WHO has also produced training material for introductory lectures and seminars on diagnosis, including visual aids. This material clarifies many aspects of ICD-10; the basic set of visual aids has been translated into several other languages.

The availability of electronic data processing and the development of operational diagnoses have led to an ICD-10 tutorial as hypertext for use as a quick aid in demonstrations and discussions of diagnoses. (51>

Another development has been in the use of computer diagnosis, which can be generated from either logical decision tree programs or statistical models. Examples of decision tree program diagnosis are DIAGNO(52 and CATEGO,(53> and programs for SCAN(54 and SIDI.(5_5>

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