Further reading

Byrne, E.J. (1994). Confusional states in older people. Edward Arnold, London.

Lindesay, J., Macdonald, A., and Starke, I. (1990). Delirium in the elderly. Oxford University Press.

Lipowski, Z.J. (1990). Delirium: acute confusional states. Oxford University Press, New York.

Miller, N.E., Lipowski, Z.J., and Lebowitz, B.D. (ed.) (1991). Delirium: advances in research and clinical practice. International Psychogeriatrics, 3, 97-414. Chapter References

1. Bowler, C., Boyle, A., Branford, M., et al. (1994). Detection of psychiatric disorders in elderly medical in-patients. Age and Ageing, 23, 307-11.

2. Treloar, A.J. and Macdonald, A.J.D. (1997). Outcome of delirium: Parts 1 and 2. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 12, 609-18.

3. Liptzin, B., Levkoff, S.E., Cleary, P.D., et al. (1991). An empirical study of diagnostic criteria for delirium. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 451-7.

4. Levkoff, S.E., Liptzin, B., Cleary, P.D., et al. (1996). Subsyndromal delirium. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 4, 320-9.

5. Folstein, M.F., Folstein, S.E., and McHugh, P.R. (1975). Mini-Mental Stateā€”a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 2, 1891-8.

6. Trzepacz, P.T., Baker, R.W., and Greenhouse, J. (1988). A symptom rating scale for delirium. Psychiatry Research, 23, 89-97.

7. Inouye, S.K., van Dycke, C.H., Alessi, C.A., Balkin, S., Siegal, A.P., and Horowitz, R.I. (1990). Clarifying confusion: the confusion assessment method. Annals of Internal Medicine, 113, 941-8.

8. Albert, M.S., Levkoff, S.E., Reilly, C., et al. (1992). The delirium symptom interview: an interview for the detection of delirium symptoms in hospitalized patients. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 5, 14-21.

9. Inouye, S.K., Viscoli, C.M., Horowitz, R.I., Hurst, L.D., and Tinetti, M.E. (1993). A predictive model for delirium in hospitalised elderly medical patients based on admission characteristics. Annals of Internal Medicine, 119, 474-81.

10. Inouye, S.K. and Charpentier, P.A. (1996). Precipitating factors for delirium in hospitalized elderly persons. Predictive model and interrelationship with baseline vulnerability. Journal of the American Medical Association, 275, 852-7.

11. Folstein, M.F., Bassett, S.S., Romanowski, A.J., and Nestadt, G. (1991). The epidemiology of delirium in the community: the Eastern Baltimore Mental Health Survey. International Psychogeriatrics, 3, 169-79.

12. Koponen, H., Stenback, U., Matilla, E., et al. (1989). Delirium in elderly persons admitted to a psychiatric hospital: clinical course during the acute stage and one-year follow-up. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 79, 579-85.

13. Tune, L., Carr, S., Hoag, E., and Cooper, T. (1992). Anticholinergic effects of drugs commonly prescribed for the elderly: potential means of assessing risk of delirium. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 1393-4.

14. Rudberg, M.A., Pompei, P., Foreman, M.D., Ross, R.E., and Cassel, C.K. (1997). The natural history of delirium in older hospitalized patients: a syndrome of heterogeneity. Age and Ageing, 26, 169-74.

15. Inouye, S.K., Rushing, J.T., Foreman, M.D., Palmer, R.M., and Pompei, P. (1998). Does delirium contribute to poor hospital outcome? A three-site epidemiologic study. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 13, 234-42.

16. Levkoff, S., Evans, D., Liptzin, B., et al. (1992). Delirium, the occurrence and persistence of symptoms among elderly hospitalised patients. Archives of Internal Medicine, 152, 334-40.

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