Further clinical examination and testing32

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A case can certainly be made for giving each child at least a general physical and neurological examination (though in most general clinic cases it will not reveal anything), but in those with significant developmental or intellectual delays it is mandatory, and a full neurological work-up is in order. Hyperactive children (and others) frequently have 'soft' neurological signs, and may be suffering from other neurological disorders. How far to extend neurological and other investigations must be decided on a case-by-case basis as a response to the differential diagnosis. Childhood psychiatric disorders are also associated with a variety of physical complaints, and these complaints may also need to be investigated.(3,34

Further reading

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (!997). Practice parameters. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,

36 (Supplement), 1S-202S.

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (!998). Practice parameters. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,

37(Supplement), 1S-89S.

Rutter, M., Hersov, L., and Taylor, E. (!994). Child and adolescent psychiatry: modern approaches. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

Shaffer, D., Lucas, C., and Richters, J. (!999). Assessment in child and adolescent psychopathology. Guilford Press, New York.

Chapter References

!. Lapouse, R. (!966). The epidemiology of behavior disorders in children. American Journal of Dysfunctional Children, 111, 594-9.

2. Rutter, M. and Graham, P. (!968). The reliability and validity of the psychiatric assessment of the child. I. Interview with the child. British Journal of Psychiatry, 114, 563-79.

3. Herjanic, B., Herjanic, M., Brown, F., and Wheatt, T. (!975). Are children reliable reporters? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 3, 4!-8.

4. World Health Organization (!992). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th revision. WHO, Geneva.

5. World Health Organization (!993). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: diagnostic criteria for research. WHO, Geneva.

6. American Psychiatric Association (!994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th edn). American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC.

7. Shaffer, D., Lucas, C., and Richters, J. (!999). Assessment in child and adolescentpsychopathology. Guilford Press, New York.

8. Angold, A., Costello, E.J., and Erkanli, A. (!999). Comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 57-87.

9. Stanger, C. and Lewis, M. (!993). Agreement among parents, teachers, and children on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22, !07-!5. !0. Reich, W., Herjanic, B., Welner, Z., and Gandhy, P.R. (!982). Development of a structured psychiatric interview for children: agreement on diagnosis comparing child and parent interviews.

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 325-36. !!. Bruck, M., Ceci, S.J., and Hembrooke, H. (!998). Reliability and credibility of young children's reports: from research to policy and practice. American Psychologist, 53, 136-5!. !2. Steward, M.S. and Steward, D.S. (!996). Interviewing young children about body touch and handling. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 61, !-236. !3. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (!997). Practice parameters for the psychiatric assessment of infants and toddlers (0-36 months). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 21S-36S.

!4. Rutter, M., Cox, A., Egert, S., Holbrook, D., and Everitt, B. (!98!). Psychiatric interviewing techniques. IV. Experimental study: four contrasting styles. British Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 456-65.

!5. Cox, A., Holbrook, D., and Rutter, M. (!98!). Psychiatric interviewing techniques. VI. Experimental study: eliciting feelings. British Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 144-52.

!6. Cox, A., Rutter, M., and Holbrook, D. (!98!). Psychiatric interviewing techniques. V. Experimental study—eliciting factual information. British Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 27-37.

!7. Ornstein, P.A., Gordon, B.N., and Larus, D.M. (!992). Children's memory for a personally experienced event: implications for testimony. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 6, 49-60.

!8. Brainerd, C. and Ornstein, P.A. (!99!). Children's memory for witnessed events: the developmental backdrop. In The suggestibility of children's recollections (ed. J. Doris), pp. !0-20. American

Psychological Association, Washington, DC. !9. Pillemer, D.B. and White, S.H. (!989). Childhood events recalled by children and adults. Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 21, 297-340.

20. Nelson, K., Fivush, R., Hudson, J., and Lucariello, J. (!983). Scripts and the development of memory. In Trends in memory development research. Contributions to human development (ed. M.T.H. Chi). Karger, Basel.

2!. Saywitz, K.J. (!987). Children's testimony: age-related patterns of memory errors. In Children's eyewitness memory (ed. S.J. Ceci, M.P. Toglia, and D.F. Ross), pp. 6-52. Springer-Verlag, New York.

22. Angold, A., Prendergast, M., Cox, A., Harrington, R., Simonoff, E., and Rutter, M. (!995). The Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA). Psychological Medicine, 25, 739-53.

23. Bird, H.R., Canino, G., Rubio-Stipec, M., and Ribera, J.C. (!987). Further measures of the psychometric properties of the Children's Global Assessment Scale. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 82!-4.

24. Canino, G., Costello, E.J., and Angold, A. (!999). Assessing functional impairment for child mental health services research: a review of measures. Journal of Mental Health Services Research, 1, 93-108.

25. Rutter, M., Silberg, T., O'Connor, T., and Simonoff, E. (!999). Genetics and child psychiatry. II. Empirical research findings. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, !9-56.

26. Jenkins, H. (!994). Family interviewing: issues of theory and practice. In Child and adolescent psychiatry: modern approaches (ed. M. Rutter, E. Taylor, and L. Hersov), pp. 34-50. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

27. Woodcock, R. and Johnson, M. (!989). Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery, Revised. DLM Teaching Resources, Allen, TX.

28. Corporation, P. (!992). Wechsler Individual Achievement Test: manual. Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, TX.

29. Sparrow, S., Balla, D., and Cicchetti, D. (!984). Vineland Adaptive Behavior Sales: interview edition expanded form manual. American Guidance Service, Circle Pines, MN.

30. Halperin, J.M. and McKay, K.E. (!998). Psychological testing for child and adolescent psychiatrists: a review of the past !0 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 575-84.

3!. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (!998). Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with language and learning disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 46S-62S.

32. Bailey, A. (!994). Physical examination and medical investigation. In Child and adolescent psychiatry: modern approaches (ed. M. Rutter, E. Taylor, and L. Hersov), pp. 79-93. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

33. Egger, H.L., Angold, A., and Costello, E.J. (!998). Headaches and psychopathology in children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 95!-8.

34. Egger, H.L., Angold, A., and Costello, E.J. (!999). Somatic complaints and psychopathology in children and adolescents: stomach aches, musculoskeletal pains and headaches. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 852-60.

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