First World

In all countries party to the First World War, psychologically informed clinicians had extensive experience of the treatment of traumatized soldiers. Their experience was taken forward in a variety of different ways. Three of the most important influences share a date of inception in 1920:

• in Austria, Freud's transfer of the concept of trauma from physical medicine to psychiatry

• in Germany, Goldstein's new understanding of the systemic relationship between individual and group

• in London, the provision of psychotherapy as a public service.

Freud applied the concept of trauma, derived from physical medicine, to mental states and created a psychoanalytic framework for the treatment of shell-shock which was to later be applied extensively to other traumas. (19> In Germany, Kurt Goldstein, a neurologist, undertook the rehabilitation of brain-injured soldiers in a hostel run as a therapeutic community. His assistant, S.H. Foulkes, was inspired by Goldstein's dynamic psychoneurology which described how the central nervous system functions as a dynamic system. The whole can adjust to and then compensate for the functional disturbance caused by local damage. ^ Group psychotherapy was later to see Foulkes transpose these ideas from their origins to a social and interpersonal matrix of relationships. (21> In London, Crichton-Miller and his colleagues founded the Tavistock Clinic. Influenced by Freud and Rivers, a psychiatrist also trained in anthropology whose wartime experience is the subject of a celebrated series of novels and now a film, they set out to provide psychotherapy as a public service. (22)

Break Free From Passive Aggression

Break Free From Passive Aggression

This guide is meant to be of use for anyone who is keen on developing a better understanding of PAB, to help/support concerned people to discover various methods for helping others, also, to serve passive aggressive people as a tool for self-help.

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