Recovery is facilitated by social support and the absence of negative responses from others after the event. (15,8 9 95) Further stressful or traumatic life events impede recovery from PTSD.(9 96 and 97) This includes the stress caused by long-lasting negative effects of the event on health and personal appearance, financial difficulties, disruptions in everyday life, and ongoing litigation. (4 8 9§
Excessively negative appraisals of the traumatic event impede recovery (e.g. 'Nowhere is safe', 'I cannot trust anyone', 'I am inadequate'). (1557,6.0) If individuals interpret their initial PTSD symptoms as signs that they are going mad or losing control, or as signs of a permanent change for the worse, they are less likely to recover. (1 dD
If individuals engage in behaviours or cognitive coping styles that prevent them from 'working through' and accepting the trauma, they are less likely to recover. Such maladaptive behaviours include avoidance, not talking about the experience, safety behaviours, denial, thought suppression, and rumination. (1, ,4183,94,98)
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