Fetal alcohol syndrome is a common cause of neuropsychiatric disorders, with a worldwide incidence of approximately 1.9 in 1000 live births. When fetal alcohol syndrome and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder are considered together, the combined rate in one study conducted in the United States was 9.1 in 1000.(24) Despite its frequency and severity, the syndrome may go unrecognized because physicians may not systematically enquire about alcohol use and may not recognize the spectrum of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on neurodevelopment.
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