Epidemiological studies of personality disorders carried out in other settings

A few epidemiological studies on PDs have been carried out among patients attending primary healthcare settings; in these studies between 5 and 8 per cent of patients have been identified as having a primary diagnosis of PD.(45) When the assessment is made independently of the primary diagnosis, however, the average prevalence rate can rise several-fold because of state effects. There are also indications that people showing certain PDs are high users of medical services.

In other institutional settings, such as prisons, several studies have found very high rates of PDs. In the United Kingdom, two large-scale studies have recently been completed; in the first, carried out among 750 prisoners representing a 9 per cent cross-sectional sample of the entire male unconvicted population, a PD was diagnosed in 11 per cent of the sample.(53) In the second study, a representative sample of the entire prison population of England and Wales was evaluated; a subsample was assessed with the SCID-II administered by a clinician.(54) The prevalence rates for any PD were 78 per cent for male remand prisoners, 64 per cent for male sentenced prisoners, and 50 per cent for female prisoners. High rates of borderline and antisocial PDs have also been found in a sample ( n = 805) of women felons entering prison in a North American State. (55>

Adult Dyslexia

Adult Dyslexia

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