Educational approaches

Children with autism and other PDDs generally require an intensive and highly structured intervention programme. More able children may be able to tolerate regular classroom situations, with appropriate support, but more impaired children often need higher levels of teacher supervision and a more intensive classroom setting. ( ) For lower-functioning children areas of priority include the ability to tolerate adult guidance and intrusion, to follow routines, to develop communicative abilities, and move from associational to more conceptual learning modalities. (79 The classroom setting can be important, as children with PDD can readily be distracted by extraneous stimuli. The tendency of such children to rely on routines can be used effectively to help promote more systematic learning. Generalization of skills learned is particularly important since the child may have difficulties in applying skills learned in new settings. Speech and communication are a critically important aspect of an intervention programme.'27) Techniques to foster communication through non-verbal means such as sign-language, picture-exchange, and so forth can be used even in non-verbal children.(27) The use of such methods does not preclude the use of spoken communication.

For higher functioning and older individuals the acquisition and generalization of social skills are also important. Various methods can be used for teaching—for example, relative to problematic situations. Thus the use of rehearsal and social scripts may be indicated. Teaching must be explicit and can include a mix of small group and individual instruction with the use of naturalistic settings to encourage generalization whenever possible. For higher-functioning students, including those with Asperger's syndrome, this can include modelling of behaviours, videotaping for self-observation, role playing, and the use of individualized social stories. (79>

Break Free From Passive Aggression

Break Free From Passive Aggression

This guide is meant to be of use for anyone who is keen on developing a better understanding of PAB, to help/support concerned people to discover various methods for helping others, also, to serve passive aggressive people as a tool for self-help.

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