The broadening of diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence in DSM-IIIR relegated 'abuse' to a residual less serious category. The two criteria for DSM-IIIR abuse are also DSM-IIIR dependence criteria; fulfilment of either criterion leads to a positive diagnosis of dependence, rendering the abuse category residual to the dependence category in this system.(32) The abuse diagnosis also required that the symptoms 'persist for at least one month or occur repeatedly over a longer period of time'.

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