Dimensional methods of assessing personality arise from either theoretical or factor-analytical models of the essential elements of personality structure. The Five Factor Model(56) proposes that personality, in both patient and non-patient samples, can be measured along five dimensions: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeable, and conscientiousness. Extremes of these traits define personality pathology. This model and several instruments used to generate scores on these factors, including the self-report NEO Personality Inventory and NEO-PI-R (57) and a semistructured interview (the Structured Interview of the Five-Factor Model of Personality(58)), have received considerable empirical support in both clinical and non-clinical samples, but there are few findings to date on their sensitivity to treatment-induced change. Some investigators have combined the categorical and dimensional approaches as a strategy to measure change in Axis II traits. They use the number of DSM criteria met for a disorder as a continuous scale of severity, or use more sophisticated statistical techniques to transform the criteria into continuous scales. The categorical and dimensional methods are not entirely mutually exclusive and both are valuable in ongoing research into the phenomenology, aetiology, correlates, and treatment of personality disorder.

Measures of functioning and quality of life

In recent years, the definition of mental health has been broadened to encompass its more positive, and somewhat paradoxically, its more negative aspects. Mental health is now viewed as more than the absence of illness, but the illness itself is increasingly seen as chronic and quite disabling. This has prompted investigators to turn their attention to outcomes other than symptom change—to evaluate fully the effectiveness of a psychotherapeutic intervention means to document its broad effect on a number of relevant domains including social/interpersonal functioning, work functioning, quality of life, and utilization of health services. Improvement in and increased usage of instruments purported to measure these constructs should help to identify the domains most related to clinical course (i.e. symptom formation, relapse, and remission) and therefore those most essential to outcome assessment and most in need of further refinement. In the area of psychosocial functioning, instruments exist to rate patients on overall level of functioning, or on single or multiple areas of functioning.

Break Free From Passive Aggression

Break Free From Passive Aggression

This guide is meant to be of use for anyone who is keen on developing a better understanding of PAB, to help/support concerned people to discover various methods for helping others, also, to serve passive aggressive people as a tool for self-help.

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