In Germany the Frankfurt Institute was established to develop and apply the shared findings of psychoanalysis and sociology. They began constructing a social view of psychoanalytic theory and practice which, interrupted by the Nazi purge of Jews, psychoanalysts, and Marxists, was continued by their staff elsewhere in Europe and the United States, and led to many of the developments described later in this chapter. (23>
In the United States, Trigant Burrow, the pioneer amongst psychoanalysts to turn attention to group dynamics, developed group psychoanalysis in the 1920s. He worked intensively with small groups, studied group tensions in communal living, and opened up a new psychological vision. For this he was rejected by both Freud and the American psychoanalytic establishment. He learned that group conflicts and tensions do not result from the actions of individuals but originate in and affect the whole group/24 This began the paradigm shift that led to a vision of the group as a whole.(25) It was to undergo further development after the Second World War, enabling later workers to recognize the dynamics of groups and institutions and leading to the therapeutic community concept and practice. (26>
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