Dependence and abuse criteria

Two core concepts relevant to assessment are 'dependence' and 'abuse' (or 'hazardous use'). Based on the original concept of alcohol dependence, illicit drug dependence is incorporated within both the ICD-10 and the DSM-IV. (l5i6) The ICD and DSM classifications include diagnostic criteria which view impairment of control over drug use and negative consequences as primary problems. ICD-10 seeks to provide diagnostic guidelines which distinguish a range of disorders that vary on severity of intoxication, hazardous, harmful use, and dependence dimensions. ICD-10 also makes a distinction between harmful use (discernible psychological and/or physical health damage to an individual) and dependence. DSM diagnoses 'abuse' of a particular substance following the endorsement of one or more of the following: use leading to neglect of personal, social, or occupational roles; use in an unsafe or dangerous situation; use leading to repeated problems with the law;

and continued use despite relationship, domestic, occupation, or educational problems. Table l shows a brief interviewer- or self-administered screening questionnaire which can be used to establish both ICD and DSM diagnoses in addition to an indication of the severity of dependence.

Table 1 DSM/ICD-compatible drug-dependence screening questions

The questionnaire can be separately administered for different classes of illicit substance. There are two possible ways to score the scale. First, one point is given to each item that is experienced by the client during the past 12 months (i.e. a report of 'once or twice' or more often). ICD/DSM dependence is then diagnosed if

Defeat Drugs and Live Free

Defeat Drugs and Live Free

Being addicted to drugs is a complicated matter condition that's been specified as a disorder that evidences in the obsessional thinking about and utilization of drugs. It's a matter that might continue to get worse and become disastrous and deadly if left untreated.

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