Conclusions

AD-HKD is a prevalent, persistent, impairing, and costly disorder. Although its origin is uncertain, biological, psychological, and social factors are clearly implicated. Medication is effective for many children, yet even this treatment appears limited, especially in its ability to alter the long-term outcome of the disorder. Nevertheless, medication can provide respite from the symptoms of AD-HKD during which time other essential aspects of therapy can be implemented.

The development of acceptable, cost-effective, and widely available non-pharmacological therapies for AD-HKD remains a priority for the field, as does the development of further pharmacological options for those children who do not benefit from stimulants or other currently available medications.

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