Surgery is a potentially curative and traumatic event whose outcome may importantly be affected by psychiatric and psychological factors. The emotional state and psychiatric status of potential surgical patients may contribute to their symptom presentation, clinical course, and outcome from surgery. Somatizing and factitious disorders may confound the diagnostic process and result in unnecessary surgery. Cognitive functioning should be assessed carefully preoperatively in all surgical patients, both because of the risks of cognitive impairment with surgery and to ensure that the capacity for informed consent is present. Systematic psychoeducational interventions and specific techniques to reduce anxiety may be helpful in the preoperative period. Most psychotropic agents can be continued until the time of surgery, with the exception of monoamine oxidase inhibitors which should usually be discontinued for 7 to 14 days prior to surgery. Delirium, agitation, cognitive impairment, and functional disability are the most common psychiatric postoperative complications. Preventive interventions in the preoperative period and prompt attention to these problems in the postoperative period may help to decrease their frequency and associated morbidity.

Free Yourself from Panic Attacks

Free Yourself from Panic Attacks

With all the stresses and strains of modern living, panic attacks are become a common problem for many people. Panic attacks occur when the pressure we are living under starts to creep up and overwhelm us. Often it's a result of running on the treadmill of life and forgetting to watch the signs and symptoms of the effects of excessive stress on our bodies. Thankfully panic attacks are very treatable. Often it is just a matter of learning to recognize the symptoms and learn simple but effective techniques that help you release yourself from the crippling effects a panic attack can bring.

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