Chapter References

1. Tansella, M. and Thornicroft, G. (1999). The mental health matrix. Cambridge University Press.

2. Acheson, E.D. (1985). That over-used word community. Health Trends, 17, 3.

3. Lindholm, H. (1983). Sectorised psychiatry. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67, Supplement 304.

4. Strathdee, G. and Thornicroft, G. (1992). Community sectors of needs-led mental health services. In Measuring mental health needs (ed. G. Thornicroft, C. Brewin, and J. Wing), pp. 140-62. Gaskell, London.

5. Thornicroft, G. and Tansella, M. (1999). Translating ethical principles into outcome measures for mental health service research. Psychological Medicine, 29, 761-7.

6. Goldberg, D. and Huxley, P. (1992). Common mental disorders. A bio-social model. Routledge, London.

7. Goldberg, D. and Gournay, K. (1997). The general practitioner, the psychiatrist and the burden to mental health care. Maudsley Discussion Paper No. 1, Institute of Psychiatry, London.

8. Goldberg, D. and Huxley, P. (1980). Mental illness in the community. Tavistock, London.

9. Holloway, F. (1994). Need in community psychiatry: a consensus is required. Psychiatric Bulletin, 18, 321-3. 10. Slade, M. (1994). Needs assessment: who needs to assess? British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 287-92.

11. Stevens, A. and Gabbay, J. (1992). The purchasers' information requirements on mental health needs and contracting for mental health services. In Measuring mental health needs (ed. G. Thornicroft, C. Brewin, and J.K. Wing), pp. 42-61. Royal College of Psychiatrists, Gaskell Press, London.

12. Wing, J.K. (1986). The cycle of planning and evaluation. In Mental health services in Britain: the way forward (ed. G. Wilkinson and H. Freeman), pp. 35-48, Gaskell Press, London.

13. Jarman, B. (1983). Identification of underprivileged areas. British Medical Journal, 286, 1705-9.

14. Thornicroft, G. (1991). Social deprivation and rates of treated mental disorder: developing statistical models to predict psychiatric service utilisation. British Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 475-84.

15. Jarman, B. and Hirsch, S. (1992). Statistical models to predict district psychiatric morbidity. In Measuring mental health needs (ed. G. Thornicroft, C. Brewin, and J.K. Wing), pp. 62-80. Royal College of Psychiatrists, Gaskell Press, London.

16. Thornicroft, G., De Salvia, G., and Tansella, M. (1993). Urban-rural differences in the associations between social deprivation and psychiatric service utilisation in schizophrenia and all diagnoses: a case-register study in Northern Italy. Psychological Medicine 23, 487-96.

17. Glover, G. (1996). Health service indictors for mental health. In Commissioning mental health services (ed. G. Thornicroft and G. Strathdee), pp. 311-18. HMSO, London.

18. World Health Organization (1990). International classification of mental health settings. WHO, Geneva.

19. Gater, R., Amaddeo, F., Tansella, M., Jackson, G., and Goldberg, D. (1995). A comparison of community based care for schizophrenia in South Verona and South Manchester. British Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 344-52.

20. Johnson, S., Kuhlmann, R., and the EPCAT Group (1997). The European Service Mapping Schedule. Version 3. Section of Community Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, London.

21. Wing, J. (1971). How many psychiatric beds? Psychological Medicine, 1, 189-90.

22. Wing, J. (ed.) (1989). Health services planning and research. Contributions from psychiatric case registers. Gaskell, London.

23. Wing, J. (1992). Epidemiologically based needs assessment. Report 6. Mental illness. NHS Management Executive, Leeds.

24. Ramsay, R., Thornicroft, G., Johnson, S., Brooks, L., and Glover, G. (1997). Levels of in-patient and residential provision throughout London. In London's mental health (ed. S. Johnson, R. Ramsay, G. Thornicroft, et al.), pp. 193-219. King's Fund, London.

25. Hansson, L. (1989). Utilisation of psychiatric in-patient care. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 79, 571-8.

26. Knudsen, H.C. and Thornicroft, G. (1996). Mental health service evaluation. Cambridge University Press.

27. Thornicroft, G. and Tansella, M. (1996). Mental health outcome measures. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.

28. Tansella, M. (1997). Making rational mental health services. Pensiero Scientifico, Rome.

29. Tansella, M. and Williams, P. (1989). The spectrum of psychiatric morbidity in a defined geographical area. Psychological Medicine, 19, 765-70.

30. Tansella, M. and Micciolo, R. (1998). Unplanned first contact as a predictor of future intensive use of mental health services. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 33, 174-80.

31. Thornicroft, G. and Goldberg, D. (1998). Has community care failed? Maudsley Discussion Paper No. 5. Institute of Psychiatry, King's College, London.

Michele Tansella and Graham Thornicroft Introduction

Evaluation: definitions and conceptual framework The, public health context forpsychiatric service, evaluation Why evaluate psychiatric services? What to,, evaluate in psychiatric services? Outcomes at the..country/regiona!. level

Outcome., at „the patientjeyel

Psycho,me,triÇ1Mprope^rties ..of., putcpme, .measures

Ho.w.to., evaluate., .psychl.at.ricMse.rvic.es

Evidence, from, ..a., ,mst,a-§,n.aiyMs,Mo,i randomized,, .controlled,, trials

Quasi-experimental studies Non-eXPerimenta!.Mdesçriptiye .studies

Conclusions Chapter., References

Evaluation at its best is a systematic way of learning from experience and using the lessons learned to improve both current and future action. At its worst it is an activity used to justify the selection of a scapegoat for past failures. (Sartorius (1))

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