C G Jung

In December 1900, Jung obtained a post as an assistant in the Burghölzli mental hospital in Zürich, then directed by Eugen Bleuler, the psychiatrist who introduced the term 'schizophrenia'. In 1905, he was appointed a lecturer in psychiatry at the University of Zürich and was also promoted to Senior Staff Physician at the Psychiatric Clinic. During these first years in psychiatry, Jung wrote his mD dissertation On the Psychology and Pathology of So-called Occult Phenomena, and began his studies based on word-association tests. At this date, associationist theories of mental functioning were paramount. Jung transformed the word-association test from a way of investigating similarity, contrast, and contiguity into a technique for uncovering emotional preoccupations. A list of 100 words is read out, and the subject is asked to respond to each with the first word that occurs to him. By timing the interval between stimulus and response, it was possible to show that, unknown to themselves, subjects are influenced by words which arouse emotion, because such words slow down their responses. This was an important piece of research, because it demonstrated experimentally that unconscious mental contents could influence behaviour.

Freud's ideas were eagerly discussed at the Burghölzli. Eugen Bleuler lists five references to Freud in his famous monograph Dementia Praecox oder die Gruppe der Schizophrenien. Bleuler wrote to Freud and told him that his writings were being studied there. In 1907, Jung published a pioneering book on schizophrenia, The Psychology of Dementia Praecox(19, which was the first notable attempt to interpret the phenomena of insanity from a psychoanalytic viewpoint. Jung demonstrated that even the fragmented utterances of the insane can have a personal meaning. Jung sent the book to Freud, which prompted Freud to invite him to Vienna. Their first meeting took place in March 1907. Jung (see ChapteL3.3.1) continued to write dynamically orientated papers on schizophrenia until a few years before his death, but he also thought it probable that a chemical factor was involved in the disease. In a lecture On the Problem of Psychogenesis in Mental Disease}11) given at the

Royal Society of Medicine in July 1919, Jung gives examples of psychotic behaviour precipitated by emotionally charged events, and insists that psychological factors must be considered along with disease of the brain if mental disease is to be fully comprehended.

From 1907 to 1913, Freud and Jung collaborated, albeit mostly at a distance, since Freud lived in Vienna and Jung lived in Zürich. Jung was a particularly welcome recruit to the psychoanalytic cause for two reasons. First, he was already a distinguished psychiatrist from another country; second, unlike the majority of Freud's close associates, he was not a Jew. However, temperamental and theoretical differences between the two men became more and more evident. Jung finally parted from Freud in 1913; that is, some 2 years after Adler, and 6 years after he first met Freud in 1907. Finally, Jung resigned from the Presidency of the International Psychoanalytic Association in 1914.

Adler and Jung were not the only 'heretics' who defected from the Vienna Psycho-Analytic Society, but they were the most important and original members to do so. The spread of psychoanalysis

In 1909, Freud, Jung, and Ferenczi visited the United States and lectured at Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts. By 1911, Havelock Ellis was able to report that psychoanalysis was being practised in Austria, Switzerland, and the United States, and also in England, India, and Canada. Before the outbreak of the First World War, psychoanalysis had already begun to assume the character of a worldwide movement.

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