Background Early history

The antecedents of therapeutic communities are found throughout the history of care for the mentally ill. Communities providing sanctuary for mentally ill people have been known as far back as the fourteenth century at Geel in Belgium. In 1796 a humane institution called The Retreat was opened by the Quakers in York, England. There it was discovered that personal relationships and social expectations in a family-like atmosphere enabled previously dangerous and unpredictable individuals to control and modify their behaviour.(6) This model strongly influenced the creation of asylums in Britain and the United States in the first half of the nineteenth century. It was eventually overshadowed by the sheer size the asylums grew to (a thousand or more beds) and by the rise of biological psychiatry with a consequent loss of interest by doctors in social and interpersonal factors.

Another historical antecedent emerged in the early twentieth century. Pioneers in therapeutic education, inspired by a Christian belief in the therapeutic power of love and by Freud's new method of psychoanalysis (see CMpĆ­ei..3.;.1), created residential schools for maladjusted children which demonstrated most of the practices and beliefs outlined above. The collective term was planned environment therapy. It was most closely associated with the work of Homer Lane, A. S. Neill, and David Wills. (7)

Break Free From Passive Aggression

Break Free From Passive Aggression

This guide is meant to be of use for anyone who is keen on developing a better understanding of PAB, to help/support concerned people to discover various methods for helping others, also, to serve passive aggressive people as a tool for self-help.

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