Criteria for particular diagnoses are described in the relevant following chapters. Axis II: specific disorders of development
These include speech and language, reading, spelling, and motor development. In DSM-IV they are included in Axis I. Having a separate axis helps to ensure that they are not overlooked. This can easily happen, for example, in children with conduct disorder, where the antisocial behaviour tends to command attention, while in fact one-third of the children also have specific reading retardation (dyslexia) which if untreated worsens the prognosis. (!8> Standardized tests are almost essential in order to characterize specific disorders of development. The lack of such tests for motor development is reflected in the lower reliability of the category. (1J.>
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