Assessment of effects on the family

The parents, usually mothers, were compared using scores on stress questionnaires. Such an approach was too simple for a number of reasons. First, it ignored positive adaptation and was superseded by studies in which coping strategies within families were identified {D providing a basis for intervention. Second, it ignored other life events and protective or compensating influences. Families with a retarded member are exposed to the same risk of adverse factors, such as poverty, divorce, unemployment, or mental illness as any other and, in most cases, will have the same strengths, such as humour, good friends, or staunch relatives as their neighbours. Third, the instruments employed mixed emotional or psychiatric symptoms with purely physical ones. All the complaints were added together as a measurement of 'stress'. Yet, backache was a very common symptom, but particularly in those parents with heavy lifting to do several times a day. The many influences, both positive and negative, on the family have been conceptualized (2) as a model where A is the event, in this case the birth or recognition of a retarded child, leading by a vector to X, the sum total of the effect on the family as a whole, with the modifying factors, B, the support given to the family, and C, the meaning given by the family to the event. Different sorts of support have been looked at and the greater efficacy of informal support from family and neighbours as compared with formal, such as that from medical practitioners, school, and professionally organized parent groups has been consistently shown. The C dimension has been investigated particularly in terms of religious groups, immigrant status, and ethnicity as well as individual and family values and beliefs.

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Back Pain Revealed

Back Pain Revealed

Tired Having Back Pains All The Time, But You Choose To Ignore It? Every year millions of people see their lives and favorite activities limited by back pain. They forego activities they once loved because of it and in some cases may not even be able to perform their job as well as they once could due to back pain.

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