Aetiology and treatment Provoked disorders of wakefulness Insufficient sleep syndrome

According to ICSD-R(1) the insufficient sleep syndrome is defined as a disorder that occurs in an individual who persistently fails to obtain sufficient nocturnal sleep required to support normally alert wakefulness.

Althought no epidemiological studies are available, this syndrome is likely to be widespread, especially in lorry drivers, physicians, working mothers, students, and executives. The main symptoms are excessive sleepiness in the afternoon and early evening, late awakening or the necessity for an afternoon nap on rest days, a consistent decrease of diurnal performances, in particular relating to tasks requiring sustained attention, and irritability, depression, nervousness, gastrointestinal problems, muscle aches, and visual disturbances. Diagnosis of this syndrome is relatively easy provided that a thorough interview is conducted. The most rational treatment is an increase of the time spent asleep, either by spending more time in bed at night, or by taking one or two naps per day.

Hypersomnia secondary to drug intake

A wide spectrum of medications may be responsible for excessive sleepiness: some, such as slow and intermediate half-life hypnotics and anxiolytics, affect patients quite consistently, and others affect certain subjects only. Positive diagnosis requires a thorough listing of all medications taken by the patient.

Breaking Bulimia

Breaking Bulimia

We have all been there: turning to the refrigerator if feeling lonely or bored or indulging in seconds or thirds if strained. But if you suffer from bulimia, the from time to time urge to overeat is more like an obsession.

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