Acute mania

The clinical features of mania form are more distinct than those of depression.(24,25) Symptom rating scales for mania parallel to the Hamilton Scale for Depression have been developed.(2 ,27)

Table.2 shows the items listed in both DSM-IV and ICD-10. The only difference is that ICD-10 includes 'increased sexual activities' as a separate item, whereas in DSM-IV it is listed under 'risk-taking behaviour'. Hence, ICD-10 has nine items and DSM-IV has only eight items. 'Elevated' and 'irritable' mood are combined in both classifications (item 1, Table..?), as are 'increased social activities' and 'psychomotor agitation' (item 7, T§ble.2).

Table 2 Acute mania as defined in DSM-IV and ICD-10

Box.2 shows the three stages of mania observed among inpatients before treatment. Whereas most depressive episodes are treated outside hospital, mania is usually treated in hospitals. Therefore most research on mania is still carried out in the hospital setting. The study by Carlson and Goodwin (28) is among the few longitudinal studies in which untreated inpatients have been observed systematically; Box.2 is a modified version of their findings. As in the previous discussion of depression, self-reports will also be referred to.

Break Free From Passive Aggression

Break Free From Passive Aggression

This guide is meant to be of use for anyone who is keen on developing a better understanding of PAB, to help/support concerned people to discover various methods for helping others, also, to serve passive aggressive people as a tool for self-help.

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