Contents

Preface page xi

1 Structural organization of the nervous system 1

Nervous systems 1

The anatomy of a neuron 2

Non-myelinated nerve fibres 3

Myelinated nerve fibres 6

2 Resting and action potentials 11

Electrophysiological recording methods 11

Intracellular recording of the membrane potential 13

Extracellular recording of the nervous impulse 15

Excitation 19

3 The ionic permeability of the nerve membrane 25

Structure of the cell membrane 25

Distribution of ions in nerve and muscle 28

The genesis of the resting potential 31

The Donnan equilibrium system in muscle 33

The active transport of ions 34

4 Membrane permeability changes during excitation 41

The impedance change during the spike 41

The sodium hypothesis 41

Voltage-clamp experiments 47

Patch-clamp studies 57

5 Voltage-gated ion channels 59

cDNA sequencing studies 59

The primary structure of voltage-gated ion channels 61

The sodium gating current 64

The screw-helical mechanism of voltage-gating 66

The ionic selectivity of voltage-gated channels 69

6 Cable theory and saltatory conduction 73

The spread of potential changes in a cable system 73

Saltatory conduction in myelinated nerves 75

Factors affecting conduction velocity 81

Factors affecting the threshold for excitation 82

After-potentials 84

7 Neuromuscular transmission 86

The neuromuscular junction 86

Chemical transmission 87

Postsynaptic responses 89 Presynaptic events

8 Synaptic transmission in the nervous system 103

Synaptic excitation in motoneurons 104

Inhibition in motoneurons 107

Slow synaptic potentials 110

Electrotonic synapses 115

9 Skeletal muscles 118

Anatomy 118

Mechanical properties 120

Energetics of contraction 127

Muscular exercise 132

10 The mechanism of contraction in skeletal muscle 136

Excitation—contraction coupling 136

The structure of the myofibril 143

The sliding filament theory 146

The molecular basis of contraction 149

11 Non-skeletal muscles 156

Cardiac muscle 156

Smooth muscle 164

Further reading 168

References 169

Index 175

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

This guide will help millions of people understand this condition so that they can take control of their lives and make informed decisions. The ebook covers information on a vast number of different types of neuropathy. In addition, it will be a useful resource for their families, caregivers, and health care providers.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment