Construction Materials

Common materials used in the base construction of floors, walls and ceilings of clean rooms are listed here. The selection of materials will, however, depend on the type of facility in which the clean room is situated.

The more common types of facility are as follows, together with key requirements for the building fabric and finishes.

(a) Primary (Bulk) Facility

The large-scale manufacture of compounds and intermediate products usually requires the movement of large quantities of materials, which are sometimes heavy, with forklift and hand-pallet truck. Finishes must be robust, solidly constructed and hard-wearing. Generally the classification of the clean rooms will be of a lower quality.

(b) Secondary (Finishing) Facility

The final form of drug manufacturing generally involves the movement of smaller quantities of mostly lighter materials. Finishes tend to be lighter in construction, but they are generally of a higher quality and often required to have an element of flexibility. The clean-room classifications will be higher quality.

(c) Biotechnology Facility

The biotechnology facility can involve both the primary and secondary stages of manufacture, and therefore construction and finishes requirements can be from either (a) or (b).

(d) Research and Development Facilities

Small-scale and pilot plant-type operations usually involve much smaller quantities of material. They are closer to laboratory scale operations, which define the standard required of high quality and usually flexible requirements. Clean-room classification will therefore be of the higher quality.

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