Ceilings

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Ceilings can either be the underside of the upper floor, generally in concrete, or

*e.g., in oral solids plants, white walls should not be specified since contaminating dust cannot be seen.

Table 6.1 Clean-Room Construction Materials

Base Construction

Applied Finish

Commentary

Concrete

Brick/block walling

Metal stud partition with gypsum board

Power float or cement screed

Render, plaster or gypsum board

Plaster, skim or taped joints

Traditional wet trade construction, schedule impact and long drying-out time before finishing. Wide tolerances, requires subsequent finish. Robust construction but services integration has to be up front.

Traditional wet trade construction apart from boards, schedule impact and long drying-out time before finishing. Robust construction but integration of services can be difficult.

Lightweight construction, quick to erect and line out. Integration of services straightforward. Support of wall-mounted equipment has to be integrated early on. Costs about same as masonry. Allows freedom of choice of finishes.

Proprietary partition

Laminate or pre-finished metal panels

System designed wall panels easy and quick to erect with integrated joint details. Often combined with ceiling system to form complete clean room. Good standard of finish but tends to be at higher cost end.

Metal support system with gypsum board

Plaster, skim or taped joints

Traditional method of in situ ceiling, quick to install with freedom of choice of finishes. Above ceiling access can be limiting, although can be made walk-on.

Proprietary suspended ceiling

Pre-finished metal tiles

Wide range of sizes, finishes and joint details available from simple epoxy metal tiles exposed joints silicone sealed to sophisticated gasket joint systems.

Table 6.2 Clean-Room Finishes

Finish Material

Location

Comments

Comparative Unit Cost

Epoxy screed

Floor

Wet trade, time consuming in project schedule. Hard wearing, various grades/thickness available. Very/good chemical resistance. Difficult to repair. Subject to cracking due to shrinkage/settlement.

3

Polyurethane

Floor

Wet trade, time consuming in project schedule. Hard wearing, various grades/thickness

terrazzo screed

available. Very/good chemical resistance. Difficult to repair. Subject to cracking due to shrinkage/settlement.

9

Terrazzo

Floor

Tiles or in-situ, wet trade with schedule impact. Hard wearing, attractive appearance. Chemical resistance good. Tiles relatively easy to repair. Subject to cracking due to shrinkage/settlement.

5

Welded PVC/

Floor,

Base preparation important. Quick to lay and welded joints give good continuous

vinyl sheet

wall ceiling

surface finish. Limited resistance to chemicals and heavy traffic. Good flexibility and easy to repair. Relatively underfoot for long working hours. Not suitable for heavy turning vehicles. Requires proper preparation of substrate especially moisture content of slab

2

Epoxy paint

Wall and

Base preparation important. Quick to apply and gives good continuous surface. Good chemical

ceiling

resistance. Repair easy but use solvent free grades. Limited resistance to fabric movement.

1.5

Elastomeric paint

Wall and

Base preparation important. Quick to apply and gives good continuous surface finish. Limited

ceiling

resistance to chemicals. Good flexibility and easy to repair. Limited resistance to abrasion.

1

Glassfibre coating

Wall and

Base preparation important. Long application has schedule impact. Gives good continuous

ceiling

surface. Good chemical resistance. Repair easy with good resistance to fabric movement.

3

Glass reinforced

Wall and

Normally part of a proprietary system. Panel joint details important. Fair chemical

plastic (GRP)

ceiling

resistance but difficult to repair.

5

PVC coated steel

Wall and

Normally part of a proprietary system. Panel joint details important. Fair chemical

ceiling

resistance but difficult to repair.

5

Phenolic resin

Wall and

Normally part of a proprietary system. Panel joint details important. Good chemical

sheet

ceiling

resistance but difficult to repair.

5

Stainless steel

Wall and

Good at covering base imperfections. Sheet size and joints a disadvantage. Good

ceiling

chemical resistance

5

Enameled steel

Wall and

Normally part of a proprietary system. Panel joint details important. Fair chemical

ceiling

resistance but difficult to repair.

false, suspended from the floor above. If a false ceiling is provided then it is of primary importance to establish the method of maintaining ceiling fittings.

Two options are available.

• Bottom access from within the clean room, although this entails maintenance personnel entering the clean room and will more than likely require the room to be revalidated

• Alternatively, access can be designed from above the ceiling, via walkways; even a complete walk-on ceiling can be provided, with the implications for increased construction costs. Ceilings must be airtight and able to maintain any over- or underpressure that could be required in the room. There must also be dimensional compatibility between the ceiling, light fittings, HVAC grilles and other fittings, and they should all be detailed as flush as possible with the ceiling surface.

Ceilings will usually be one of the two following types.

• In situ suspended, usually a plasterboard system, with an applied coating finish

• Prefinished composite square or rectangular panels in an exposed or concealed supporting grid

A further alternative to this is the use of composite units, usually long rectangular panels with a tight tongue-and-grooved joint on their long edges. All of these systems can be detailed to be "walk-on."

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