Natural Treatment to get rid of Lyme Disease

Lyme Strategies

This latest updated text, in digital eBook form and available for immediate download, has been expanded nearly eightfold over the original guide of 2004 in terms of the exact, step-by-step lue-print and essential information designed to maximize this protocol. Just some of the valuable information contained in this 193-page guide includes: How to do the protocol, including the exact, specific method or procedure that is critical to its success. Schedule chart, measurements guide, tips and recommendations. The basic elements of the protocol are actually five, not just salt and vitamin C what these are and why Understanding what a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (or Herx) is. Particular djunct items found to be extremely helpful and particular items for special issues. A Technical Section detailing why the protocol works (posited mechanisms), including scientific citations and and studies. The right salt versus wrong salt and why. the low-salt, no-salt myth and scientific truth. the historical, medicinal use of natural salt. Did you know salt was used to treat syphilis, caused by Lyme's bacterial cousin, in the 1800s? Why Vitamin C and what does it do? The protocol and specific body considerations (heart, adrenals, etc.) Key Characteristics of the Lyme bacterium (Borrelia burgdorferi), including nearly 20 extraordinary mechanisms and features it uses to elude the immune and proliferate in the body

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The Borrelia burgdorferi Genome

In general terms, there appears to be a division of labour between the chromosome and the extrachromosomal elements or plasmids. Genes encoded on the chromosome tend to be housekeeping genes present in single copy while the genes on the plasmids tend to be Borrelia-specific, of unknown

Borreliatick Relationships

Fig. 1 schematically represents the relationships between selected Borrelia and tick species. The figure shows the pathogen-vector pairing between B. hermsii and O. hermsi, Borrelia turicatae and Ornithodoros turicata, B. lonestari and Amblyomma americanum, and B. theileri and Boophilus microplus, but the occurrence of more than one species of Borrelia in I. scapularis and I. ricinus. The relationships between expanded groups of Ixodes spp. and LB group species are shown in Fig. 3. The species The figure demonstrates the overlapping and complex relationships between the Ixodes ticks and the Borrelia spirochaetes. I. ricinus is the vector of at least five different LB group species B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdorferi and Borrelia valaisiana in Fig. 3, as well as Borrelia lusitaniae (Hubalek & Halouzka, 1997). B. burgdorferi is probably not even of Palaearctic origin (Marti Ras et al., 1997). It was probably imported to Europe from North America during the last two or three...

Retinitis in Lyme Disease Definition

Inflammation of the retina usually caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. Findings and symptoms Lyme disease can lead to many inflammatory ocular changes with their respective symptoms. These include conjunctivitis, keratitis, and iridocyclitis. Retinal vasculitis, retinal artery occlusion, neu-roretinitis, optic neuritis, and choroiditis have also been described. Lyme disease should be excluded as a possible cause of posterior uveitis of uncertain etiology. Clinical course and prognosis Retinal changes due to Lyme disease tend to recur.

The Ecology of Lyme Disease

Because of the seeming explosion in the numbers of Lyme disease cases, and its apparent extension to new geographical areas, the ecology of Lyme disease is under intense study. In the northeastern United States, large increases in white-footed mouse populations occur in oak forests during years in which there is a heavy acorn crop, with a corresponding increase in Ixodes scapularis ticks. Both deer and mice feed on the acorns and subsequently spread the disease to adjacent areas. Variations in weather conditions, and their effect on food supply for these animals, might therefore be an important ecological factor, although it is not clear that weather cycles completely explain the emerging nature of the disease. The presence of animals other than white-footed mice for the ticks to feed on is another factor. Alternative tick hosts usually do not have a sustained Borrelia burgdorferi bacteremia following infection from a tick, and the blood of a common lizard host along the West Coast...

Lyme disease

First described in the United States in 1975, this infection has also been reported in Europe, Australia, and other parts of the world. It is caused by the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi, which is carried and transmitted by the deer tick. The somatic symptomatology, in 60 to 80 per cent of the patients, features a characteristic skin lesion, erythema chronicum migrans, an expanding erythematous annular lesion which usually first appears 3 to 32 days after the initial transmission and may last for several weeks. In 15 per cent of the patients, the disease progresses to a secondary phase marked by neurological symptoms, for example meningoencephalitis, radiculitis, central and peripheral neuropathy, and myelitis. The neuropsychiatric symptomatology consists in difficulties involving memory, orientation, and calculation. Even years after the first infection, patients can present with violent and impulsive behaviour, labile affect, and depression. Cases of psychotic or catatonic...

Borrelia

The genus Borrelia comprises diverse species of spirochaetes that are associated with haematophagous arthropods (Paster et al., 1991 Paster & Dewhirst, 2000). Some Borrelia species are pathogenic for humans or for livestock. Other spirochaete groups with human pathogens are the treponemes, which include the human-restricted agent of syphilis, and the leptospires, which are mostly free-living spirochaetes that infect a wide variety of animals. The spirochaete phylum also contains a number of species that are symbionts of invertebrates, such as molluscs and termites. Borrelia spirochaetes characteristically circulate in the blood of their vertebrate hosts and are transmitted between vertebrates by ticks, with the single, epidemiologically important exception of a louse-borne species. A common strategy of Borrelia spp. for prolonging spiro-chaetaemia - thus increasing the probability of vector transmission - is avoidance of the immune response through antigenic variation (Barbour &...

Impact of extrinsic environmental factors

The wide, non-patchy geographic distribution of many B. burgdorferi s. l. species appears to confirm this, although there are clear differential ranges that cannot be explained simply by the availability of competent vector or host species (Fig. 4). The more recently described species from eastern Asia are currently known only from the countries where they were originally isolated (B. japonica, Borrelia tanukii and Borrelia turdi from Japan, and Borrelia sinica from northwest China), where they are associated with local tick species. This almost certainly reflects an absence of knowledge rather than a knowledge of absence elsewhere. In contrast, where survey work has been much more intensive, B. afzelii, B. garinii (Eurasian and Asian types) and B. valaisiana are found throughout Europe and Asia (Hubalek & Halouzka, 1997 Wang et al., 1999a), but Borrelia lusitaniae is known mostly from Portugal and N. Africa and more rarely, but increasingly, from elsewhere in Europe (Jouda et al.,...

Autonomous Replication and Plasmid Compatibility Functions

Further experimental evidence testing this prediction has come from studies utilizing similar regions from cp32, cp26, lp25, lp28-1 and lp17 to construct further shuttle vectors (Beaurepaire and Chaconas 2005 Byram et al. 2004 Eggers et al. 2002 Stewart et al. 2003). The minimum in cis requirements for autonomous replication differ from one example to another, but in some cases can be reduced to either a PF57 or PF62 gene member and a small amount of nearby flanking sequence (Beaurepaire and Chaconas 2005 Eggers et al. 2002). A PF57 or a member of the homologous PF62 family is always represented in the minimal required regions, leading to the suggestion that they may encode alternative versions of a plasmid initiator or Rep function (Beaurepaire and Chaconas 2005). Bioinformatics sheds no light on this issue since the PF49, 50, 57 and 62 gene families have no similarity to ORFs found outside the genus Borrelia (Casjens et al. 2000). Similarly, sequence comparisons of the known and...

Nuclear Imaging Techniques

The low specificity of cardiac antimyosin uptake results from its exquisite affinity with necrotic myocytes. Antimyosin uptake has been reported in systemic diseases that affect the heart such as Lyme disease.77 Positive uptake has also been reported in heart transplant rejection,78 anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy,79 and alcohol-related cardiomyopathy.80 Its high sensitivity and modest specificity suggest that antimyosin scintigraphy may be useful as an initial screening tool to determine which patients should undergo biopsy. Unfortunately, this imaging agent is not currently available commercially and is restricted to research.

Detection Of Viral Genomes In The Heart By Rtpcr

Regarding the presence of infectious agents in the heart of patients with DCM, there are rather divergent PCR results. Whereas in patients with DCM Pankuweit et al.9 found an incidence of cytomegalovirus DNA of 12 , adenoviral DNA of 15 , and borreliosis of 0.5 , Galama's group did not detect any nucleic acids from enteroviruses, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B and C viruses, Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia species, mycoplasmata, or Toxoplasma gondii in patients with end-stage DCM.94

Transovarial Transmission

Another feature distinguishing LB group species from RF group species is the frequency of transovarial transmission of the agent from one generation of ticks to the next (Burgdorfer & Varma, 1967). Transovarial transmission allows the persistence of the micro-organism in a vector population in the absence of sufficient numbers of suitable vertebrate hosts for maintenance. Although some studies suggested that a small percentage of larvae of field-collected Ixodes spp. are infected with B. burgdorferi or a related LB group species, at least some of these organisms are probably B. miyamotoi s. l. spirochaetes and not transovarially transmitted B. burgdorferi (Scoles et al., 2001). Experimental studies of vertical transmission of B. burgdorferi in I. scapularis and Ixodes pacificus indicate that it would be insufficient in frequency to maintain Borrelia populations for long in the absence of a vertebrate reservoir (Magnarelli et al., 1987 Piesman, 1991 Schoeler & Lane, 1993). When...

Artificial Dna Putting Together The Pieces

PCR and DNA probes have been of great value to the areas of molecular biology, medicine, and biotechnology. Using these tools, scientists can detect the DNA associated with HIV (the virus that causes AIDS), Lyme disease, chlamy-dia, tuberculosis, hepatitis, HPV (human papilloma virus), cystic fibrosis, muscular distrophy, and Huntington's disease.

Incidence of Linear Plasmids in Gram Negative Bacteria

During the last decade, an increasing number of publications have appeared about the presence of linear plasmids in Gram-negative bacteria. The first report dates back to 1967 when Ravin described N15, a linear plasmid prophage of Escherichia coli (Ravin and Golub 1967). Linear plasmids were also found in the spirochete genus Borrelia (Plasterk et al. 1985). Since then a lot of work has been done on the characterization of Borrelia plasmids (Kobryn 2007, in this volume). Linear plasmids have also been identified in other Gram-negative bacteria, namely Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Jumas-Bilak et al. 1998), Ochrobactrum spp., Pseudomonas putida (Danko et al. 2004) and in several Xanthobacter strains (Krum and Ensign 2001 Tardif et al. 1991). The plasmids of these organisms are apparently associated with the biodegradation of organic compounds, e.g. vinyl chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane and propylene (Fetzner et al. 2007, in this volume). Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)...

Fate of the Incoming DNA after Uptake

For incoming DNA to survive inside a bacterial cell as a self-replicating DNA molecule, it must be a replicon. In other words it must have its own origin of replication and lack exposed ends. For survival in the vast majority of bacteria, this means that it must be circular. In those few bacteria, such as Borrelia and Streptomyces (see Ch. 5) with linear replicons, the ends must be properly protected. In eukaryotes, long-term survival of a linear DNA molecule requires a replication origin, a centromere sequence, and telomeres to protect the ends (see Ch. 5).

Possible Scenarios Of Bioterrorism Attacks Distinguishing Victims From Perpetrators

Tests may also discriminate between the time of the infection as acute or chronic, and its limitations may lead to different interpretations unless one is familiar with those limitations. An example of this occurred with the bacterial infection of Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease. Dattwyler's group showed that antibiotics could abrogate the antibody response because ELISA results were negative in 30 of patients with known disease who were treated early.21 Another group showed that in early cases reactivity to a unique antigen, OspA, was also negative in serological assays despite a demonstrable T-cell response.22 Our own group had an opportunity

Behavioural determinants of vector competence

Arthropod blood feeders can be divided into host-specific and opportunistic (Sonen-shine, 1993). Culiseta melanura, the enzootic vector of Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), feeds almost exclusively on passerine birds, the reservoir hosts (Scott & Weaver, 1989). Boophilus microplus, the tick vector of babesiosis and anaplasmosis of cattle, feeds almost exclusively on cattle Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus, vectors of Lyme disease in North America, feed on a wide variety of vertebrates including large mammals, birds and reptiles. The mosquito Culex salinarius, a potential vector of WNV in North America (Sardelis et al., 2001), has a wide host range including birds, equines and canines. This species also takes multiple blood meals during one gono-trophic cycle if feeding is disturbed by defensive behaviours of the host (Cupp & Stokes, 1976). If infected with a pathogen, this behaviour increases the chance of transmission during a short period of time. On the other...

Ligneous Conjunctivitis

Chronic conjunctivitis can be caused by many infectious, immunological and toxic agents. Also, anatomic aberrations (like ectropion or proptosis) can cause inflammation. In chronic conjunctivitis the epithelium becomes hyperplastic and the goblet cells increase in number. Crypt-like epithelial infoldings can occur, forming sub-epithelial retention cysts. These cysts contain mucus in which calcification can be seen over time. The presence of perivascular infiltrate in the stroma can induce fibrous bands between the epithelium and the tarsus, which can cause surface irregularities, the so-called papillary conjunctivitis. In fact, the epithelial and stromal responses of a papillary conjunctivitis are non-specific and can also be seen in atopic conjunctivitis and, in a more extreme form in individuals wearing contact lenses (giant papillary conjunctivitis) 108, 114 . When lymph follicles are found in the superficial stroma, it is called follicular conjunctivitis. The presence of these...

The Neural Immune System in CFS

The early idea that CFS represented a form of chronic Epstein-Barr infection was dropped when data were reported indicating that elevated EBV titers B reflecting prior infection are not uncommon in healthy people (Gold et al. 1990). Adherents for chronic infection by other agents including HHV-6, mycoplasma, and Astealth viruses continue to advocate their beliefs, but convincing data remain to be seen. Infection can certainly trigger the onset of CFS. Rates of 9 of developing CFS have been reported following infectious mononucleosis (White et al. 1998), Lyme disease and severe viral infection (Hotopf et al. 1996). Thus, postviral fatigue exists, but persistence of an infectious agent has not been demonstrated.

Tick Vectors And Reservoirs

With the exception of Borrelia recurrentis, which is transmitted from person-to-person by the human louse, Pediculus humanus, the vectors of Borrelia spp. are ticks. Ticks (Ixodidae) are a subgroup of the order of mites (Acari), which are, in turn, members of the larger group Arachnida. Ticks are a form of parasitic mite (Parasitiformes) that is entirely dependent on a periodic blood meal for all its biosynthetic activities and for reproduction. The two major monophyletic clades of ticks are soft (Argasidae) ticks and hard (Ixodidae) ticks. Although most phylogenetic analyses based on morphology or DNA sequences indicate that argasid ticks are basal to ixodid ticks in the evolutionary history of mites (Crampton et al., 1996 Klompen et al., 1997), one molecular phylogenetic analysis did not support this ordering of deep nodes (Black et al., 1997). Fig. 1 on the right shows an unrooted tree without an outgroup of selected tick species. Fig. 1. Micro-organism-vector relationships for...

Occasional Plasmids are Linear or Made of RNA

Single Stranded Plasmid Hairpin

Although most plasmids are circular molecules of DNA there are occasional exceptions. Linear plasmids of double-stranded DNA have been found in a variety of bacteria and in fungi and higher plants. The best-characterized linear plasmids are found in those few bacteria such as Borrelia and Streptomyces that also contain linear chromosomes (see Ch. 5). Linear DNA replicons in bacteria are not protected by A) BORRELIA hairpin loop ends B) STREPTOMYCES tennis racquet ends A) Linear plasmids of Borrelia form hairpin loops at the ends. B) Linear plasmids of Streptomyces are coated with proteins that protect the DNA ends. If linear plasmids had exposed double-stranded ends, this might trigger recombination, repair, or degradation (Ch. 14). A) Linear plasmids of Borrelia form hairpin loops at the ends. B) Linear plasmids of Streptomyces are coated with proteins that protect the DNA ends. If linear plasmids had exposed double-stranded ends, this might trigger recombination, repair, or...

The Telomere Resolvase ResT

The Borrelia enzyme that performs telomere resolution was confirmed to be the product of the BBB03 locus of the circular plasmid (cp26) and was named ResT (for Resolvase of Telomeres Kobryn and Chaconas 2002). The activity of ResT was assayed in vitro on plasmids carrying rTel junctions established to be in vivo substrates. Provided that the negative supercoils of the purified plasmids are removed by prior nicking, relaxation or linearization, ResT resolves these rTels into two covalently closed hp telomeres. The reaction is conservative, site-specific and requires no accessory factors, divalent metal ions or high-energy cofactors.

Pediculus humanus the human clothing louse body louse

In contrast to the head louse, the body louse is an extremely important vector of human-pathogenic microorganisms. In Russia, louse-transmitted diseases have caused more deaths than any other infectious disease in recent centuries (Rydkina et al. 1999). Louse infestations are promoted by wars and natural disasters when people are forced into crowded, unhygienic conditions. Thus, outbreaks of louse-borne diseases is a constant threat to people living under primitive conditions such as those prevailing during conditions of war, in refugee camps and in prisons in poor countries. The body louse is the vector of three medically important infections, namely, epidemic typhus caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, trench fever caused by Bartonella quintana, and epidemic relapsing fever caused by Borrelia recurrentis.

Supplemental Reading

The primary stage of Lyme disease is readily treatable with oral antibiotics. Doxycycline is considered to have the best activity against Lyme disease, so it the drug of choice for treatment in adults unless there is a history of allergy or intolerance to doxycycline.

Gorelova N B Korenberg E I Kovaleskii Y V Shcherbakov S V 1995

Small mammals as reservoir hosts for Borrelia in Russia. Zentbl Bakteriol 282, 315-322. Guerra, M., Walker, E., Jones, C. J., Paskewitz, S., Cortinas, M. R., Sancil, A., Beck, L., Bobo, M. & Kitron, U. (2002). Predicting the risk of Lyme disease habitat suitability for Ixodes scapularis in the north central United States. Emerg Infect Dis 8, 289-297. Gylfe, A., Olsen, B., Strasevicius, D., Ras, N. M., Weihe, P., Noppa, L., Ostberg, Y., Baranton, G. & Bergstr m, S. (1999). Isolation of Lyme disease Borrelia from puffins (Fratercula arctica) and seabird ticks (Ixodes uriae) on the Faroe Islands. J Clin Microbiol 37, 890-896. Gylfe, A., Bergstr m, S., Lundstr m, J. & Olsen, B. (2000). Reactivation of Borrelia infection in birds. Nature 403, 724-725. Hu, C. M., Humair, P.-F., Wallich, R. & Gern, L. (1997). Apodemus sp. rodents, reservoir hosts for Borrelia afzelii in an endemic area in Switzerland. Zentbl Bakteriol 285, 558-564. Hu, C. M., Wilske, B., Fingerle, V., Lobet, Y....

Microbial translocation across the bloodCNS barrier

If cerebral endothelial cells are confronted with high bacterial loads, other factors besides the transcellular passage supposedly become relevant. Both the p-hemolysin production of S. agalactiae and the pneumolysin of S. pneumoniae are capable of damaging the endothelial layer integrity, thus possibly allowing direct paracellular passage of bacteria 52, 124 . In studies on Hib, it has been suspected that the bacteria cross the BBB paracellularly 125 . Borrelia burgdorferi is also suspected of reaching the subarachnoid space after paracellular penetration, although some aspects point at a trans-cellular route as well 126 . Protozoans such as Trypanosoma brucei at least partly penetrate endothelial linings via a paracellular mechanism, although recently transcellular permeation has been documented 127 .

Figure

Lyme Disease Lyme disease occurs in the temperate, forested regions of Europe and Asia and in the northeastern and upper midwestern areas of the United States. A history of tick bite, characteristic rash (erythema chronicum migrans), and constitutional symptoms in association with a painful polyradiculopathy, facial palsy, or menin-goencephalitis allow Lyme disease to be distinguished from MS in most cases. Optic neuritis has been described. More difficulty arises with so-called tertiary Lyme disease, in which a chronic progressive neurologic disorder may develop, such as a spastic para-paresis, in association with white matter lesions on brain MRI. The diagnosis is suggested by the appropriate early history and a marked CSF lymphocytosis. Confirmation is by detection of intrathecal antibody using immunoblot, and or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the antigen, where available. A prolonged course of antibiotics is advised.

Concluding Remarks

The Borrelia sp. and the Borrelia sp. has a very narrow host range for vectors. This may have occurred because the ticks have a very limited geographic range and may have only intermittent exposure to a very restricted number of potential hosts. For the Borrelia sp. under these conditions the evolutionary strategy may have been to heighten the efficiency of transmission from spirochaetaemic vertebrate to feeding tick, perhaps through high-affinity binding to a mouthpart ligand as the spirochaetes pass or to midgut ligand once the spirochaetes enter the intestine. Another strategy under these conditions would be maintenance of the population size in a given environment through transovarial transmission when suitable vertebrate hosts are lacking. The LB group of species are considerably less discriminating in their vector choices than the agents of RF. The sole reservoirs for this group of Borrelia spp. appear to be vertebrates rather than ticks alone or both ticks and vertebrates. In a...

Medical conditions

Only a limited number of general medical conditions present vague, non-specific, and multiple somatic symptoms (e.g. hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, acute intermittent porphyria, myasthenia gravis, AIDS, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Lyme disease, and connective tissues disease). In most of these medical conditions there will be positive paraclinical findings.

Etiology

Infectious and environmental agents have been considered in the search for a cause. Early investigators thought that sarcoidosis could be a variant of tuberculosis.23 Other putative infectious agents include Borrelia burgdorferi, Propionibacterium acnes, Mycoplasma, and several viruses (Table 18-1). Environmental agents that could induce a granulomatous response include aluminum, zirconium, and talc. An epidemiologic report suggested that virus, cytomegalovirus) Borrelia burgdorferi Propionibacterium acnes

Preventing Diseases

These preventable diseases include adenovirus, cholera, diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, Japanese encephalitis, Lyme disease, measles, meningococcal disease, poliomyelitis, rabies, rotavirus, rubella, tetanus, tuberculosis, typhoid, varicella, and yellow fever.

Soft ticks Argasidae

Ticks of the genus Ornithodoros can be distinguished from other soft ticks (Argas, Otobius) by the presence of mamillae (minute, regular, usually hemispherical elevations) of the integument and the absence of a distinct lateral margin to the body (Varma 1993) (Figure 23.7). Most species of Ornithodoros inhabit animal burrows, nests, dens, and caves where they feed on wild mammals or seabirds. These ticks are the main vectors and reservoirs of human relapsing fever (Borrelia spp.) also denoted as tick-borne (endemic) relapsing fever. The foci of this infection are very localized and restricted to huts, caves, etc. The spirochaetes are transmitted both transstadially and transovarially in the tick population. To the ticks' blood hosts the spirochaetes are transmitted by tick bite but sometimes also by contaminated coxal fluid from the ticks. Human infections play no role in the dynamics of this zoonosis among the natural hosts of the ticks, that is, small mammals. In the US, three...