Laundry Chemicals to Avoid
The remarkable speed and precision of enzyme activity is already exploited in a number of different processes. For example, the enzyme glucose isomerase is used to modify corn syrup, converting some of the glucose into fructose, which is much sweeter than glucose. The resulting high-fructose corn syrup is used in the commercial production of a variety of beverages and food products. Other enzymes, including proteases, amylases, and lipases, are used in certain laundry detergents to facilitate stain removal. These enzymes break down proteins, starches, and fats, respectively, which otherwise adhere strongly to fabrics. Similar enzymes are being added to some dishwashing detergents, decreasing the reliance on chlorine bleaching agents and phosphates that can otherwise pollute the environment. Enzymes are also used by the pulp and paper industry to facilitate the bleaching process.
Abstract One is used to considering sulfite oxidation as part of a lithotrophic process (e.g. SorAB or Sox system), much of which involves neutral or ionic inorganic sulfur species on the outer surface of the cytoplasmic membrane. In contrast, the processes referred to in this chapter involve organic compounds, which (1) include a highly stable sulfonate substituent (C-SO3-), (2) are involved in the organotrophic growth of the organism and (3) much of whose metabolism takes place in the cytoplasm. Many phenomena are associated with this life-style. The sulfonate may be a natural product, e.g. taurine or sulfoquinovose, whose synthesis can involve sulfite, or a xenobiotic laundry detergent, but it is effectively always a charged species, so an uptake system is essential. Two known systems are mentioned, ATP binding cassette transporters and tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporters. Annual dissimilation of megatonnes of organosulfonates essentially always involves...
Care such as the ICU bed, laundry, and sources of warmth and comfort. The second category covers life-support equipment such as the ventilator and other types of respiratory support, including an oxygen supply. The third and fourth categories comprise the monitoring equipment required to detect changes in physiological variables and the equipment required to treat the patient. The treatment equipment can be subdivided into that needed for continuing intensive therapy, such as infusion pumps for inotropic support, and that needed in an emergency which may arise because of physiological deterioration or equipment failure (e.g. a blocked endotracheal tube, loss of oxygen, power failure, avulsed intravenous infusion catheters).
No assessment of an elderly patient is complete without an assessment of the carers' needs which include practical assistance in the home (e.g. meals and laundry services), professional services delivered to the home (e.g. physical or psychiatric nursing, bathing assistance, and sitting services), and respite care which is best delivered on a regular basis to suit individual needs.
For example, alternative use can point to or trigger the need for multifunctional products. A study by the Food & Brand Lab at the University of Illinois found that 30 of respondents, motivated by convenience, have found new ways to use cleaning products, such as using laundry bleach to clean countertops 28 of respondents, motivated by cost consciousness, use health and beauty items in different ways, such as Preparation-H to tighten facial pores and smooth out fine wrinkles and 26 of respondents, motivated by health consciousness, use food in new ways, such as substituting yogurt for sour cream in a recipe.
Enzymes used in laundry detergents to enhance cleaning ability may sensitize both the workers where the product is made and the consumer who uses it ( 252). The enzyme subtilisin (or subtilin) is proteolytic and is derived from Bacillus subtilis, where it plays a role in sporulation. It may produce rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma, associated with precipitating antibodies and Arthus-type reactions on skin testing. Many cases reported did not involve atopic individuals. Enzyme-containing detergents currently are not commonly used because of their sensitizing potential. Other enzymes, cellulase and macerozyme, are used to digest cell wall structures of plants. Laboratory workers have been shown to develop IgE-mediated symptoms from inhaling these enzymes (253). Papain, a cysteine protease, is obtained from the fruit of the papaya tree. It is used as a meat tenderizer, clearing agent in the production of beer, contact lens cleaner, and component of some tooth powders, laxatives, and...
Housekeeping services were offered, and Doreen's one-bedroom apartment would be thoroughly cleaned once per week. This typically took the cleaners one to two hours, depending on the size of the unit. Doreen's unit was small, but it was always such a mess that the cleaning staff needed to spend half a day cleaning it. Food remains (garbage) were left all over the apartment, becoming odiferous and attracting bugs. Her dirty clothing was left lying around as well, and she used the laundry hamper to store her record albums. Sometimes during the cleaning sessions, Doreen would become visibly agitated, and dance in front of the cleaning staff, waving her fingers before their faces as if trying to scare them off. The cleaning help complained to the management and ultimately refused to enter her apartment. Doreen accepted this as a victory.
It appears colored if all light wavelengths are absorbed, the object appears black and if none of the wavelengths is absorbed, the object appears white. It is convenient to mention that our discussion is focused on colors produced by light of wavelengths in the visible region. However, some materials absorb light of the ultraviolet region followed by the emission of light in the visible region. This could be a fluorescence or phosphorescence process. These processes are well understood, and it has been clearly established that fluorescence is a rapid process, whereas phosphorescence is a slower process. Currently, fluorescent substances are widely applied in the laundry industry as whiteners (materials look whiter than white).
When the room is vacated, all surfaces must be thoroughly cleaned with warm water containing detergent and then dried. Disinfectants are generally unnecessary, unless a highly infectious disease is involved or multiple-resistant bacteria (e.g. methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) are being contained. In this case, use of a phenolic disinfectant as a final surface wipe is recommended. All bed linen and curtains from source isolation should be sent for laundry, bagged as 'infected' in accord with local policy. Equipment in contact with patients should be wiped with water containing detergent followed by either a phenolic or alcoholic surface disinfectant. All materials are discarded as infected waste. The mop head is detached, bagged, and sent for laundry. Cleaning gloves are washed while still being worn, dried, and then placed with the cleaned mop bucket. Hands are thoroughly washed and dried.
Assisted living is a community-based living option that combines housing, supportive services, and healthcare designed to meet the needs of people who require assistance with their daily activities. The types of services offered usually include meals served in a common dining area (apartments may also have their own kitchens or kitchenettes), housekeeping services, transportation, personal care assistance, emergency call systems, medication management, health promotion programs, social activities, and laundry services. Assisted living programs may offer single rooms, double rooms, studio apartments, or one or two bedroom apartments. The facility may be free standing or housed with other residential options such as nursing homes or independent living units.
Required storage space is directly related to the number of beds. Bulky items such as ventilators, trolleys, dialysis equipment, drip stands, monitoring equipment, infusion pumps, and blood warmers require considerable floor space and 5 m2 per bed space is recommended. Consumables such as syringes, infusion sets, filters, and items from the central sterile services department occupy another 5 m2 per bed. Linen must be stored the space required depends on the frequency of delivery and laundry turn-round, but is estimated to be 2 m2 per bed space. Thus the total storage per bed space is 12 m2. Specialized beds, traction frames, portable imaging equipment, and seating for visitors all need storage, and this may add another 20 m2 to the requirements.
Thomas has been married to Theresa for twenty years. She has had MS for nineteen years and was initially very stable. She worked until two years ago and raised two children, both of whom are now in college. Theresa has become increasingly disabled during the past two years. She uses a walker in the house and a wheelchair outdoors. She is no longer able to do laundry, prepare meals, or manage the house (shopping, cleaning, pay bills) due to fatigue, forgetfulness, and problems with her handwriting. Frequently, when Thomas returns home from work, Theresa is sitting watching TV. She has soiled herself yet is unaware of her incontinence. Thomas is then faced with the tasks of cleaning her (and the furniture), preparing dinner, doing household tasks, and assisting Theresa with her personal hygiene before bed. He complains of having no life and no one to talk to. He complains of disturbance in his sleep patterns (Theresa occasionally wanders at night and has to be assisted to the bathroom),...
Heat-loving prokaryotes are a major source of heat-resistant enzymes for biomedicine and industry. The heat-tolerant enzyme Taq polymerase allows biotechnologists to copy pieces of DNA rapidly, while other enzymes from thermophilic archaea, when added to laundry detergent, help dissolve stains.
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