Cyclical Ketogenic Diets Review

The 3-Week Ketogenic Diet

The 3-week ketogenic diet is tested and proven to be a new diet system that not only will guarantee you are losing weight, but it also gives an assurance of you losing excess body fat in the shortest time of just twenty-one days. After the first week of joining the 3-week ketogenic diet, most people notice some changes in their bodies like joint relief, and their bodies begin to be light and more energy in their bodies.The 3-week ketogenic diet requires food supplements that are readily available locally, and at friendly prices, his makes their product to have a better competitive edge as compared to other products. The 3-week ketogenic diet does not limit any users as anybody can join the program regardless of their age or their ethnicities. A diet program guide is provided by Nick to help all the users and when they follow the guidelines strictly, after three weeks weight loss is achieved. More here...

The 3Week Ketogenic Diet Summary


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Carbohydrates and Lipids

Carbohydrate polymers have been known to be antigenic since the beginnings of the study of immunology. They are commonly encountered in pathogenic organisms, such as pneumococci, and it is to be expected that there has been substantial evolutionary pressure to produce effective responses against them (reviewed by Berzofsky and Berkower, 1993). As a general rule, low molecular weight carbohydrates are not immunogenic, but may become so after coupling to an immunogenic carrier. The carbohydrate moieties of glycoproteins and glycolipids are also immunogenic. Other important carbohydrate antigens include the ABO blood group substances, which are glycolipid in nature (Yamamoto et al., 1990). For background information on carbohydrate antigens, the reader is referred to the reviews of Wiegandt (1985), Sharon and Lis (1989,1993), Karlsson (1991) and Drickamer and Carver (1992) Although many carbohydrate antigens are capable of eliciting very high titre antibodies, and these may be of the IgG...

Effects Of Nondigestible Carbohydrates

Wolever et al. showed that propionate decreased the incorporation of 13C labelled colonic acetate in plasma TG in humans the effect on the incorporation in plasma cholesterol was not significant.79 Several studies showed that NDCs reduce TG concentrations in control humans, particularly while on high-CHO diets,80-82 and can also reduce cholesterol levels.82 Negative results have also been reported in normal subjects, probably because of low doses of CHOs and relatively high fat diets.83,84

Which Diet to Recommend Low Carbohydrate or Low

Is the choice of diet really important A number of controlled studies 1-3 have all proved the same effectiveness, when the caloric intakes are similar, with a balanced diet, a diet poor in carbohydrates and a dissociated diet, over a 6-week or 6-month period (fig. 1). Over 24 weeks, Samaha et al. 4 compared low carbohydrate and low fat diets in 132 obese patients with a body mass index of 43 kg m2 and a high prevalence Low carbohydrates carbohydrates 30 carbohydrates 45 carbohydrates 45 Fig. 2. Low fat and low carbohydrate diets and weight loss. Adapted from Golay et al. 3 and Samaha et al. 4 . Fig. 2. Low fat and low carbohydrate diets and weight loss. Adapted from Golay et al. 3 and Samaha et al. 4 . of diabetes (39 ) or metabolic syndrome (43 ). The patients in the low carbohydrate group (maximum 30 g carbohydrates day) lost significantly more weight (p < 0.002) than those in the low fat group (500kcal day reduction of total energy intake, with a maximum of 30 fat day). However,...

Methods of producing carbohydrates with lower glycemic index

Based on the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 (USDA, 2005), dietary carbohydrates should provide 45-65 of total calories. Dietary carbohydrates, structurally, can be divided into monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. a-1,4- and 1,6-linked glucans (such as starch and maltodextrins) are digestible by human enzymes, while dietary fiber - including some oligosaccharides (like inulin) and non-starch polysaccharides (like pectins, hemicelluloses, cellulose) - cannot be digested by the human body. The majority of starches in cooked and processed foods are rapidly digested and produce high postprandial glycemia. Starches that digest slowly result in a moderated glycemic response and may provide extended energy to an individual. A challenge facing researchers in the public and private sectors is to create such slowly digestible starches with low GI as an ingredient for typically high-GI processed foods, or as new food products, or, through...

What Is The Scientific Basis For Recommending High Carbohydrate Intake

There is no doubt that the goal of increasing carbohydrate intake was actually to reduce fat consumption, especially saturated fat. People with diabetes were no longer dying of diabetic ketoacidosis but coronary heart disease. In fact, some experts suspected that the prescribed high-fat (and high saturated fat) diabetic diets might actually be partly responsible for the heightened risk of cardiovascular disease among people with diabetes. Several well-designed intervention studies in diabetic subjects were undertaken and showed that high-carbohydrate diets (55-70 energy) could result in lower blood cholesterol and TG levels with no deterioration in glycaemic control compared to traditional 'diabetic' diets containing less carbohydrate and more saturated fat (12-14, 21-25). Indeed, much to their surprise, HbA1c, glucose tolerance and fasting glucose were often improved following treatment with a high-carbohydrate diet. This implied that insulin sensitivity was improved on a higher...

Low carbohydrate diets what does the science say

Several randomized trials have examined the efficacy of low carbohydrate diets in terms of weight loss and improvement of metabolic parameters compared with conventional, low fat, low calorie diets. Multiple randomized controlled trials demonstrate low carbohydrate dieters lose significantly more weight at 6 months versus conventional dieters 18-20 . At 6 months, low carbohydrate dieters also experience greater decreases in triglyceride levels, serum fasting glucose and body fat than low fat dieters 19, 20 . At 12 months, however, there is no significant difference in weight loss between the two groups as low-carbohydrate dieters regain some weight while conventional dieters maintain a consistent weight level 18 .

Carbohydrates energy metabolism and wound healing

In general, calories are needed to supply the energy that is necessary for wound healing. Nutritional support generally includes some form of carbohydrates (parenteral dextrose, and enteral lactose, oligosaccharides, etc.). Glucose is a critical nutrient, especially in patients who have experienced significant trauma, such as a burn, as it is required for cellular growth, fibroblastic mobility, and leukocyte activity. As the metabolic rate increases, there is a concomitant increase in the conversion of amino acids to glucose and an increased rate of hepatic gluconeogenesis if adequate carbohydrate substrates are not provided. Carbohydrates have been shown to impact wound healing in a variety of ways. Historically, carbohydrates have been viewed as an energy source for patients who are recovering from wounds. Differences have been noted in regards to carbohydrate requirements of patients who suffer from acute traumatic wounds (i.e., burns), acute iatrogenic wounds (i.e., incisions),...

Dietary Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates (Fig, 3.1) thus exist as a vast family of naturally occurring compounds and derivatives of these compounds. Fortunately, only a small number of them are commercially significant and used in the food industry, while a similar number are of metabolic importance. Dietary carbohydrate is a major nutrient for both man and omnivorous animals. Human adults in the Western world obtain approximately half their daily caloric requirements from dietary carbohydrates in the developing countries, it is the major source. Of this ingested carbohydrate, some 60 is in the form of polysaccharides, mainly starch and glycogen, but the disaccharides sucrose and lactose represent 30 and 10 , respectively (IabJe. . . .3.1). More recently, in a few Western countries, a significant intake of monosaccharide sugars (glucose and fructose) can be obtained from manufactured foods and drinks. Some oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, are found in small amounts in various legumes. They...

Low carbohydrate diets are they safe

Health care professionals continue to be concerned with the potential negative side effects of high dietary protein intake associated with low carbohydrate diets. Concerns include dehydration, fatigue, increased calcium excretion, colon cancer and increased renal burden 21 . Additionally, high saturated fat intake and increased risk of heart disease are associated with low carbohydrate, high protein diets 22 . Diabetics are one population in whom the use of low carbohydrate diets needs to be carefully monitored given the high incidence of renal disease 23 . Some research has demonstrated a decrease in microalbuminuria with improvement in glycemic control 24 with no increase in serum creatinine concentrations 19 however, few studies have directly addressed more sensitive markers of renal function such as the glomular filtration rate (GFR). Although the data suggests that at 6 months there is an improvement of co-morbid conditions among low-carbohydrate dieters, the potential for...


Carbohydrates serve as energy reservoirs and are a component of nucleic acids. In addition, carbohydrates also attach to lipids and proteins. The basic unit of a carbohydrate consists of the simple sugars or monosaccharides. These molecules have carbon, oxygen, and hydroxyl groups that most commonly form ringed structures. The oxygen can react with the hydroxyl group of another simple sugar to form a chain. As a result, the formula for a simple sugar is (CH2O)n, where n represents various numbers of these linked building block units.

Methods in Enzymology

Complex Carbohydrates Volume XXVIII. Complex Carbohydrates (Part B) Edited by Victor Ginsburg Volume L. Complex Carbohydrates (Part C) Edited by Victor Ginsburg Volume 83. Complex Carbohydrates (Part D) Edited by Victor Ginsburg Volume 138. Complex Carbohydrates (Part E) Edited by Victor Ginsburg Volume 179. Complex Carbohydrates (Part F) Edited by Victor Ginsburg Volume 362. Recognition of Carbohydrates in Biological Systems (Part A) Edited by Yuan C. Lee and Reiko T. Lee Volume 363. Recognition of Carbohydrates in Biological Systems (Part B)

Functional Traits of Microbial Communities

There are additional variants in functional traits possessed by particular organisms isolated from the environment. Interactions, such as crossfeed-ing or competition among isolated strains representing dominant populations in an ecosystem and their separate growth rates, and other kinetic parameters may provide crucial information for understanding functional processes in microbial communities. Also, soil microorganisms are regularly subjected to fluctuating water potentials forcing release of intracellu-lar solutes (amino acids, carbohydrates) into the surrounding environment thus selectively hampering strain culturability (Halverson et al. 2000). The ability to be mobile is one of the most impressive attributes of a microbe's physiology that counteracts the predator's efficiency. Cyclical dynamics of soil bacteria and their predators occur out of phase in different microniches in soil but can be synchronised and observed after strong disturbances (Zelenev et al. 2004). Mamilov et...

Basic Physiology of Obesity

Obesity is the result of excess calories, in the form of triglycerides stored in billions of fat cells or adipocytes. When the calories in versus calories out equation favors excess calories in, then the patient gains weight as fat cells fill up with triglycerides. Excess calories, ingested from carbohydrates, proteins, or fats, are not melted away, eliminated through the kidneys, or passed through the colon. The math is simple. A weight increase of one pound is the result of 3500 extra calories consumed, and the loss of one pound of weight is the expenditure of 3500 calories.

Large Carbon Molecules

Many carbon compounds are built up from smaller, simpler molecules known as monomers (MAH-ne-mers), such as the ones shown in Figure 3-3. As you can also see in Figure 3-3, monomers can bond to one another to form polymers (PAWL-eh-mer). A polymer is a molecule that consists of repeated, linked units. The units may be identical or structurally related to each other. Large polymers are called macromolecules. There are many types of macromolecules, such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.

Modeling to Test New Therapies

Alternative treatments for epilepsy also benefit from animal research. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), for instance, was first investigated with acute seizures in dogs and then with chronic epilepsy in monkeys before it was tried in humans (Schachter and Wheless, 2002). Animal research is also playing an important role in developing the techniques of deep brain stimulation as a treatment for epilepsy. Epilepsy surgery, gamma knife surgery, and the ketogenic diet (KD) have been used effectively in patients without preliminary studies in animals. However, animal research continues to be of value in our efforts to understand how these therapeutic interventions work, what might be done to improve them, and which patients are most likely to benefit from their use. Identifying appropriate animal models for testing therapeutic interventions is a prime concern. For example, because KD is principally used in children, understanding and improving KD-based approaches require comparable immature...

Critical Thinking

Four main classes of organic compounds are essential to the life processes of all living things carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. You will see that although these compounds are built primarily from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, these atoms occur in different ratios in each class of compound. Each class of compounds has different properties.

Protein posttranslational modification

Glycosylation (the attachment of carbohydrates) is one of the most common forms of PTM associated with eukaryotic proteins in general, particularly eukaryotic extracellular and cell surface proteins. In the case of some glycoproteins, removal of the sugar component has no detectable effect upon the biological properties (deglycosylated forms of the glycoprotein can be generated by including inhibitors of the glycosylation pathway, e.g. the antibiotic tunicamycin, in the cell growth media,

Lettuce and E coli O157H7

Interestingly, it was reported that the medium in which EcO157 cells were grown affected attachment. Cells grown in tryptic soy broth were more hydrophilic, produced more CPS, and attached better to edges of lettuce (0.4 log10) and to the surface of both lettuce and apple (0.8 to 1.0 log10) than those grown in nutrient broth, suggesting that CPS may be involved directly in attachment 139 . These studies suggest that EcO157 has different mechanisms for attaching to different regions of lettuce leaves, possibly involving hydrophobic interactions, surface carbohydrates (CPS LPS), neutralization of ionic charge, or bridging of anionic moieties by divalent cations.

Structure and function

Carbohydrates are defined as compounds that are composed of simple sugars (monosaccharides). They were initially named this because they contain both carbon (carbo) and H2O (water), as shown in Figure 2.1. Until recently, most medical textbooks focused primarily on the nutrient energy roles played by three simple sugars (glucose, fructose, and galactose), three disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, and maltose), as well as the fiber energy roles of complex carbohydrates (cellulose, glycogen, and starch). Over 200 simple carbohydrates are now known to be produced by plants. Eight of these carbohydrates (galactose, glucose, mannose, N-acetylneuraminic acid, fructose 6, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, and xylose) are now recognized as being essential for health, and new roles for carbohydrates are constantly being discovered (1).

Long Term Control of Obesity

The NWCR reports that successful long-term weight loss consists of four basic behaviors. The first behavior is eating a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. Less than 1 of the subjects report eating a high-fat diet. The difference in terms of calories in versus calories out balance is that both a gram of carbohydrate and a gram protein contain 4 calories, whereas a gram of fat contains 9 calories. Therefore, gram for gram, caloric density makes a difference in controlling obesity.

Ba World Of Colorless Compounds

Living cells are mainly composed of macromolecules. These macromolecules are limited to five groups (Figure 3.1). Carbohydrates and polysaccharides are involved in the production of energy and as structural elements carbohydrate molecules are uncolored (white). Proteins have a large number of functions, such as catalysis and

Plant Microbe Biofilms

Intact plant surfaces, especially those of leaves, are relatively inhospitable environments for microorganisms, providing limited sites for attachment, surface retention of water, and nutrients. Nevertheless, many microorganisms have developed mechanisms to attach, survive, or grow in microniches on different plants. The micrograph shown in Figure 2.3A demonstrates the localization and high density of epiphytic bacteria on a lettuce leaf. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria are interacting in aggregates and possibly competing for the limited nutrients available in the microniche at the junction of epidermal cells where cuticular waxes are less dense, water accumulates, and nutrients are more available than in other sites. Although biofilms with classic structures described in recent studies are rarely found on plants, thick three-dimensional biofilms have been observed on sprouts sampled from a commercial sprout facility (Figure 2.3E). The image reveals the potential for...

Recommendations for carbohydrate intake

Carbohydrates are important as the key energy nutrient for the patient with wounds. In patients who are critically ill or injured, a rate of no more than 5 mg kg min of carbohydrate (and especially dextrose) is recommended. For patients who are receiving an oral or enteral diet, carbohydrate appears to be well tolerated when adequate protein is also provided. Whether patients are receiving their nutrients enterally (oral or tube feeding) or parenterally, care should be taken to assure that excessive total calories are avoided. Measurement of energy needs using indirect calorimetry is preferable for determining energy needs. However, if this is not available, energy expenditure can be determined using a predictive equation. Special attention must be paid to monitoring to assure that the provision of carbohydrates is contributing to the attainment of positive outcomes.

Internal Structures Of The Plant Involved In Internalization

A pectic sheath on the exposed walls 1 . Micropores, sometimes called micro-capillaries, exist in the lattice of microfibers and associated carbohydrates. These pores may be partially filled with pectic compounds or other wall material. Additionally, the microcapillaries contain water in a pectin gel or as free water, such that the relative humidity in the intercellular spaces ranges from 98 to 100 . Sakurai 16 suggested that a plant's symplast is surrounded by a liquid medium. Certain reports conclude that the cell walls bounding intercellular spaces have a coating of water, whereas others have suggested the exposed wall is actually hydrophobic due to an incrustation of cutin 17 . The plant cuticle has been observed to cover the guard cells and pore of a stoma and to extend partially into the substomatal chamber 1,3,15 . Schonherr and Bukovac 22 noted that the chemical characteristics of the surfaces of the cuticle on the plant surface were similar to those within the substomatal...

Recommendations for future research

Further research is needed to determine if differing types of carbohydrates can be used as energy fuel substrates for wound healing. Varying the absolute level of carbohydrate intake has been studied, with levels as much as 82 of total calories being acceptable. In addition, determining the timing of nutrition intervention and the route of administration continue to be challenges in patients needing critical care and in those requiring chronic wound care. Further research into alternate nutritive sources may also be useful.

Nutrients Vitamin D In Colon Cancer

Secondary bile acid lithocholic acid LCA and its metabolites, which are carcinogenic. By binding to the vitamin D receptor, both LCA and vitamin D may activate a feed-forward catabolic pathway that increases the expression of CYP3A, a cytochrome P450 enzyme that detoxifies LCA in the liver and intestines to clear LCA from the body.102 This may provide one mechanism to explain how the protective pathway of vitamin D receptor activation may become overwhelmed by high-fat diets (which increase LCA levels) or compromised when vitamin D is deficient with inadequate sun exposure or intake.

Clinical Market and Relevance of the Therapy

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that affects 2.3 million people in the United States and as many as fifty million people worldwide Begley et al., 2000 . Perhaps half have intractable epilepsy that is, seizures cannot be controlled by antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy, and or there are side effects from AEDs that adversely impact quality of life. The ketogenic diet, the vagus nerve stimulator, and epilepsy surgery are other treatment options. However, many persons with epilepsy are left without treatment that is efficacious, tolerable, and acceptable. Device-based therapies may provide additional therapeutic options. One approach to treating medically intractable localization-related epilepsy with partial onset seizures is to provide focal stimulation in response to electrographic epileptiform activity. The NeuroPace RNS system includes a cranially implanted responsive neurostimulator that continuously monitors electro-corticographic (ECoG) activity from intracranial electrodes,...

Protein with Fat Carbohydrate with

Simple sugars, as contrasted with the more complex carbohydrates, should not be combined with anything. Fruit must be a separate snack, and if you can't resist an occasional refined-sugar dessert, eat it on an empty stomach. This way only you suffer the ill effects of the refined sugar itself. When refined sugar is eaten with other foods, both the other foods and the sugar will be poorly digested. The end result is the formation of toxins and the increased absorption of caloric content, which help neither your health nor your weight.

Review of Other Technologies

The current practice for treating epilepsy includes AEDs, vagus nerve stimulation, the ketogenic diet, and resective surgery. There are currently no FDA-approved implantable direct brain stimulation devices available to treat epilepsy. In the research setting, direct brain stimulation for epilepsy has had mixed results. The vast majority of this work used noncontingent continuous or on-off cycling stimulation, also referred to as open-loop stimulation.

The strategy of digestion 311 Carbohydrate

Dietary carbohydrate may take a number of forms. In most real meals (as opposed to the pure glucose loads studied in many experimental situations) there is a mixture of simple sugars, oligosaccharides and complex carbohydrates. Of the complex carbohydrates, some will be readily digestible starch, composed of the straight-chain amylose and the branching amylopectin, together with very small amounts of glycogen in animal tissues. Amylose consists of long chains of glucosyl units joined by a-1,4 links amylopectin consists of chains of a-1,4-linked glucosyl units, with a-1,6-linked branches very like glycogen (see Fig. 1.8). There are other types of starch which are resistant to digestion in the small intestine, but fully digested in the large intestine they are referred to as The digestible carbohydrates are for the most part absorbed from the small intestine in the form of monosaccharides. The strategy of the digestive process, then, is to have them in that form as they reach the small...

The glycaemic index of foods and its effect on insulin response and glycaemia

The glycaemic response to a food, which in turn affects the insulin response, depends on the rate of gastric emptying, as well as on the rate of digestion and absorption of carbohydrates from the small intestine (Jenkins et al., 1987). Traditionally, carbohydrates were classified as 'simple' and 'complex' based on their degree of polymerization. Sugars (which are mono- and disaccharides) were therefore classified as simple, whereas starches (poly-saccharides) were classified as complex. However, carbohydrates might be better classified on the basis of their physiological effects, for example their ability to increase blood glucose. The glycaemic response depends both on the type of sugar (e.g. glucose, fructose, galactose) and the physical form of the carbohydrate (e.g. particle size, degree of polymerization) (Augustin et al., 2002).

Consequences of inadequate fat intake on the healing wound

And manifest the scaly skin associated with EFAD. Elderly patients are also potentially at greater risk, because they appear to have a decreased ability to adjust their metabolism (e.g., resting energy expenditure) in response to lower caloric intake.140 There may be benefits to an inadequate fat intake for burn injuries. Immunosup-pression is a common outcome of burn-injured patients. A study in rats found that a low-fat diet (1 fat) compared to a high-fat diet (25 fat) prevented immunosuppression as measured by in vitro splenocyte proliferation.141 A followup study from the same laboratory group found that the type of fatty acid in the diet did not influence the degree of immunosuppression, and that nitric oxide release by macrophages was the cause of reduced T-cell activity.142

The Low Glycemic Index Diet

A shift in the American consumption of macronutrients toward more carbohydrates with an increase in sweeteners and grains has led some authors to propose that America's obesity epidemic is the result of eating carbohydrates that have a high glycemic index (GI). In 1981, Dr David Jenkins studied the release of insulin by the pancreas in response to the digestion of various types of carbohydrates. He assigned white bread a GI of 100 other researchers assign glucose a value of 100. Whichever standard is used, the absorption of all other carbohydrates is compared to a score of 100. Dr Jenkins studied 62 commonly eaten foods and sugars. Vegetables had the highest rating (70 5 ), followed by breakfast cereals (65 5 ), biscuits (60 3 ), fruit (50 5 ), dairy products (35 1 ), and dried legumes (31 3 ) 17 . With the American dietary trend towards more carbohydrates, it seems the cause of the obesity epidemic might be consumption of higher-GI foods. If that is the case, then weight loss should...

Association of glycaemic response with satiety and food intake

The rate of hydrolysis of ingested carbohydrate and the rate of gastric emptying are determinants of the rate of glucose absorption, which, in turn, determines the extent and duration of the glucose rise after consumption of a food or meal. Circulating insulin levels are directly determined by p-cell stimulation by absorbed glucose or amino acids. As explained above, the insulin demand is determined not only by the amount of carbohydrate ingested but also by its quality, which will determine the rate of absorption. The GI of foods or meals provides an indication of the rate at which their carbohydrates are digested. Low-GI foods may be considered potential dietary tools to reduce glucose absorption rate and insulin response (Augustin et al., 2002). Slowly digested carbohydrates, which are low GI, may be used to prolong satiety compared with high-GI foods. Studies that have investigated this relationship are summarized in Table 3.3. In one study, the effect of different rice types on...

Sources of further information and advice

Additional information about glycaemic carbohydrates and their effect on bodyweight regulation are provided in a recent review by Saris (2003). The different effects of fat and carbohydrates on the thermogenic response and fat deposition are also discussed in this review.

Furanose Proton J Values

The third category is rare in carbohydrates because the bulky OH groups prefer the equatorial position, pushing the H into the axial position. 1.2.2 NMR of Carbohydrates Chemical Shifts chemical information in NMR and are exchanged for deuterium by the solvent if we use deuterated water (D2O). In the case of carbohydrates, nearly all of the protons attached to carbon are in a similar environment one oxygen attached to the carbon (CHOH or CH2OH). These protons all have similar chemical shifts, in the range of 3.3-4.1 ppm, so there is often a great deal of overlap of these signals in the 1H NMR of carbohydrates, even at the highest magnetic fields achievable. For this reason carbohydrate NMR (and NMR of nucleic acids RNA and DNA, which have a sugar-phosphate backbone) has been limited to relatively small molecules because the complexity of overlapping signals is limiting. The anomeric proton, however, is in a unique position because the carbon it is attached to has two bonds to oxygen....

The Insect Cuticle The First Line of Defence

The cuticle forms a mechanical barrier, made of chitin fibrils embedded in a protein matrix, on the exterior and the interior midgut, trachea, and genital tract regions of the insect (Wigglesworth, 1972). The outer layer of the cuticle (the epicuticle) is covered in a waxy layer containing lipids, fatty acids, and sterols. This chitinous exoskeleton is a matrix of carbohydrates and protein secreted from a monolayer of epidermal cells covering the entire surface area of the insect (Wigglesworth, 1972).

Correctivesymptomatic Treatment

Diet is of extreme importance both in the prevention of disease and in medical care. An adequate intake of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals is necessary in the treatment of all patients. Patients with fever generally require increased amounts of all dietary constituents. Patients with certain diseases require diets in which the various dietary constituents are carefully controlled. One example of a special diet of this type is that for diabetes mellitus, in which the amounts of protein, fat, and carbohydrates must be individually regulated.

GI and Diabetes Treatment and Prevention

Although different carbohydrates do produce differing glycemic responses, to be of benefit clinically, this benefit should translate into long-term improvements in glycemia or lipids. Table 2 summarizes the research comparing high versus low GI diets on glucose and lipid outcomes in studies with a minimum duration of 2 weeks 14-28 . Examining the data reveals no clear trend in outcome benefits. A meta-analysis of GI diets in persons with diabetes reported a reduction in HbA1c by 0.4 units (a 7.4 decrease) from

Nutrition Of Viscum Album

Viscum album is hemiparasitic, i.e. it depends for water and mineral nutrition on its respective host but is able to produce carbohydrates by photosynthesis. It contains all pigments, chlorophyll a and b as well as carotinoids that are necessary for photosynthesis (Luther and Becker 1987). Through radiotracer experiments it has been shown that mistletoes have the same photosynthetic activity per unit leaf surface as the respective host plants. As there is no phloem connection between mistletoe and host, organic substances from the host are only transported via the xylem. This transport includes amino acids, cyclohexols (Richter and Popp 1992) and thiols (Renneberg et al. 1994). Mistletoe have a much higher transpiration rate than their respective hosts. Schulze et al. (1984) found that mistletoes on pine trees have a more than 3-fold transpiration rate, calculated for leaf surface, as compared to the pine tree. In a broad study on three continents, Ehleringer et al. (1985)...

Capillary Electrophoresis

The widest application of capillary electrophoresis has been in the separation of organic chemicals such as pharmaceuticals and carbohydrates. It has also been applied to the separation of inorganic anions and metal ions. It is an alternate method to high performance liquid chro-matography (HPLC) for these applications. Capillary electrophoresis has the advantage of faster analytical runs and lower cost per run than HPLC. Increasingly, capillary electrophoresis is being used for the separation and analysis of nucleic acids, which is explained below.

GI and Weight Loss and Appetite

In reviewing weight changes in the 12 studies in persons with type-2 diabetes in table 2, one study reported more weight loss on the high GI diet, 1 study reported more weight loss on the low GI diet although the calories were also less in that arm, and 10 studies reported no differences in weight loss. Heilbronn et al. 25 asked the question does reducing the GI of a high carbohydrate diet confer a benefit during energy restriction. After 4 weeks of an energy-restricted diet, subjects were randomized to a low or a high GI diet. There was no difference in weight loss between the groups.

Regulation of Membrane Associated Fatty Acid Transporter Expression

FAT CD36 expression is also altered in a diabetic state. For example, CD36 protein levels are increased several-fold in NOD diabetic mice69 and CD36 mRNA levels are slightly elevated in the Zucker diabetic and obese rats, although not to the extent that the FABPpm and FATP mRNA levels are increased.62 Further clarification of the regulatory relationship between FAT CD36 expression and insulin is required.19 The distribution of FAT mRNA along the gastro-colic axis is greatest in the jejunum, the main site of fatty acid absorption, and its mRNA levels are regulated by the intake of dietary fat. Specifically, high fat diets administered to rats increase FAT mRNA levels, with a diet rich in long-chain fatty acids increasing levels most dramatically.70 The effect of dietary fats may be due directly to the action of a series of fatty acid-responsive nuclear receptors. Indeed, both fatty acids and other lipophilic compounds such as peroxisome proliferators induce FAT mRNA expression,71,72...

Incorporating the GI to Foods

The current low carbohydrate diet fad is phasing out and, therefore, food companies may be looking for a new marketing approach. With the current publicity regarding the GI in diet books and by many health providers, it would appear logical to think that knowing the GI of foods would be useful. The low fat diet approach stopped working when food companies flooded the market with low fat foods that were not necessarily lower in calories. The same can be said regarding the low carb approach. Instead of avoiding carbohydrate foods which would lead to a reduction in calories the market became flooded with low carbohydrate (net carbohydrate, low impact carbohydrate) foods that also were not necessarily lower in calories. This can potentially happen to low GI foods as well. The problem with the low GI approach will be similar to the problems that occurred with the development of low fat and low carbohydrate foods. Food companies can develop low GI foods. This can be done by adding or...

What Might Be More Helpful

Until research demonstrates long-term benefits for people with diabetes in the use of the GI, making food choices should be kept as easy and simple as possible. Understanding what foods are carbohydrates, knowing portion sizes, and knowing how many servings to select for meals, and, if desired, for snacks, will benefit the majority of the people with diabetes and can increase variety and flexibility in food choices.

Is this an acute or chronic problem

Usually a self-limited disease, which can often be treated symptomatically. The most common cause is infection. Other common causes include drugs (eg, antibiotics) as well as excessive intake of high-carbohydrate fluids or non-absorbable fillers (eg, sorbitol).

Feeding the septic patient

Septic patients have been thought to have a resting energy expenditure of at least 1.5 times to twice their basal requirement in health. Protein and amino acid requirements should be 1 to 1.5 g kg day, corresponding to 15 to 20 per cent of the total caloric supply. The question of the best energy substrate in septic patients is controversial. However, in clinical practice both carbohydrates and lipids are usually administered. Glucose can be recommended as the main source of non-protein energy, while 20 to 40 per cent of the total energy supply should be provided as lipids.

Viscum album var coloratum Ohwi V album var C

Various chemical components have been isolated and identified from the extracts of V. album var. C., such as lectins, steroids, triterpenes, sesquiterpene lactones, carbohydrates, flavonoids, organic acids and amines, alkaloids, amino acids and peptides. -sitosterol and daucosterol (Tseng et al., 1957 Kong et al., 1987a, b). Carbohydrates

Indicated in most acute diarrheal episodes Antibiotic therapy

Early refeeding is recommended in managing acute gastroenteritis because luminal contents are a known growth factor for enterocytes and help facilitate mucosal repair following injury. Introducing a regular diet within a few hours of rehydration or continuing the diet during diarrhea without dehydration has been shown to shorten duration of disease. Infants and children with more severe diarrhea may require lactose restriction to prevent exacerbating the diarrhea because of transient lactase deficiency resulting from acute gastroenteritis. Avoid heavily sweetened juices and encourage intake of complex carbohydrates such as rice and potatoes.

Dietary protein and amino acids

High-protein diets for weight management have being revisited in recent years (reviewed in references 46 and 129). Proteins are more thermogenic (see Section 4.2.3) and satiating (see Chapter 2) than fats and carbohydrates. There is convincing evidence from human intervention studies that a higher protein intake (25 or more of the total energy as protein) increases ther-mogenesis and satiety, and reduces subsequent energy intake in the short-term compared with diets having the usually recommended protein content (15 or less of total energy as protein).46 1 29 There is also evidence that higher-protein diets can result in an increased weight loss and fat loss as compared with diets lower in protein, probably due to reduced perceived hunger and energy intake.46'129'130 Higher fat loss with high-protein diets is evident, however, even under isocaloric conditions, where total weight loss is not affected, pointing to a metabolic effect of protein favoring energy repartitioning towards lean...

Other food and food components of interest

Anthocyanins are phenolic phytochemicals used for the coloring of foods and widely distributed in human diets through crops, beans, fruits, vegetables and red wine. In one study,180 it was found that dietary supplementation with anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-O-P-D-glucoside-rich purple corn color) suppressed the development of high-fat-diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice the effect was not due to reduced energy intake or fat absorption, and was accompanied by reduced expression of key enzymes and transcription factors for fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis in both liver and WAT. These results suggest that anthocyanins may constitute functional food factors of benefit in the prevention of obesity and diabetes, probably by targeting lipogenesis (effects on energy expenditure thermogenesis were not addressed in the above study, and remain to be investigated).

Ricin Structure and Action

Ricin consists of two polypeptide chains connected by a single disulfide bond.130 The B chain of ricin folds into two globular domains,131 each of which contains a carbohydrate binding site for b-D-galactopyranoside moieties. These carbohydrates can be present in millions of copies per cell. After binding of ricin to carbohydrate receptors on the cell surface, the toxin is endo-

Pretransplant Recipient Evaluation

If after these evaluations there is consensus that the patient is a good candidate for intestinal transplantation, the patient will be listed. While waiting for a donor to become available the stable patient should be reassessed every three months to determine whether there is any change is their PRA status, deterioration in liver function, or development of other medical problems. Furthermore while waiting for intestine only transplantation, the HPN administration should be monitored very closely to ensure that it does not contribute further to the development of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis since optimal balancing of carbohydrates and lipids in the HPN solutions can minimize the development of hepatic pathology. These patients will also need ongoing maintenance of their central lines to minimize line-related complications such as infections and thrombosis. Furthermore while waiting for transplantation close attention must be paid to fluid and electrolyte disturbances which are...

Carbohydrate Metabolism

Carbohydrates are the main energy source for metabolic reactions and glucose is the most used carbohydrate in metabolism. Energy is produced by breaking down (catabolized) glucose in a process called glycolysis, which takes place in the cytoplasm of most cells. Glycolysis, also known as the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, is the oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid. In glycolysis, which originated from the Greek word glykys meaning sweet and lysein meaning loosen, enzymes split a six-carbon sugar into two three-carbon sugars, which are then oxidized. Oxidation releases energy and rearranges atoms to form two molecules of pyruvic acid. It is during this process that NAD+ is reduced to NADH with a net production of two ATP molecules.

Calorie Restriction In The Obese Woman With

Maternal ketosis, induced by calorie restriction, has been implicated to impaired foetal neuro-physiological and cognitive development (66,67). While there is a general reluctance to recommend severe calorie restriction in pregnancy even in obese women, modest calorie constraint for those with GDM may be safe as these women are relatively protected against ketosis by their high hepatic glucose outputs (54,68,69). Theoretically maternal ketosis can be lessened during modest calorie restriction when small frequent meals containing slowly absorbed carbohydrates are taken, as such diets are associated with an attenuated insulin response that delays lipolysis and ketogenesis (70). We have previously reported that when the daily energy is restricted to 2025 kcal kg day for obese women with GDM (pre-pregnancy BMI > 28 kg m2) from the 24th week of gestation, weight gain is half that of women with a similar pre-pregnancy weight who receive no dietary intervention, and their risk of...

Posttransplant Function

The absorptive capacity of the transplanted intestine is typically good. While there may be some initial malabsorption of carbohydrates, for the most part carbohydrate absorption appears to normalize within the first several months as determined by d-xylose absorption.29 Clearly, absorption of immunosuppressive drugs, particularly Prograf, is instantaneous and some transplant programs initiate oral immunosuppressive drugs immediately following surgery. While drug malabsorption has been described,30 difficulty in obtaining levels is often associated with inability to retain ingested drugs because of nausea or vomiting, or noncompliance. Although very little has been done to measure amino acid absorption in intestinal transplantation, this also appears to be adequate quite early as deter

Diet And Insulin Therapy For

When starting on insulin women should be advised to take low glycaemic index carbohydrates at meal times and for snacks between meals and before bed. Fruit is ideal for snacks as it is low in fat and calories. Fruit, by being slowly absorbed, reduces the risk of hypoglycaemia while allowing postprandial glucose levels to be lowered without having to increase the insulin dose.

Ncam And Synaptic Plasticity 51 Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity

The first direct evidence that NCAM may play a role in synaptic plasticity was provided in 1994 by a seminal study that showed that perturbation of NCAM function significantly reduced LTP in the CA1 area of the hippocampus49 (see Chapter 25 for introduction in synaptic plasticity). Polyclonal antibodies against NCAM, soluble oligomannosides that block interaction of NCAM with oligomannosidic carbohydrates carried by L1, and synthetic peptides from the fourth Ig-like domain of NCAM, which mediates interaction with L1, were used in these experiments. Further studies using constitutive NCAM-knockout and conditionally NCAM-deficient mice, in which the NCAM gene is ablated in neurons after cessation of major developmental events, showed impairment of CA1 LTP in both mutants, thus supporting the view that NCAM plays acute functional role in synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region20,36,50. Additionally, LTD in the CA1 was impaired in conditional NCAM knockout mice50. In the CA3 region,...

Cell biology life cycle and interactions with the host

Asci which can be seen as empty, banana-shaped shells in electron micrographs of bronchial lavage fluid sediments from infected lungs. Alveolar spaces filled with organisms can be seen in pathology specimens and both stages identified in lavage fluids by immunocytochemistry, (Figure 12.3). The composition of the cyst wall is distinct from the surface of the trophozoites. The thick middle electron-lucent layer of the cyst wall seen in transmission electron microscopy (Figure 12.4) contains important immunogens. The cyst wall contains carbohydrates (De Stefano et al. 1989) and some appear to contain beta-1-3-glucan (Goheen et al. 1994). Degradation by glucanase and chitinase confirms that this layer contains branched glucan and chitin. The susceptibility of the polysaccharide-rich electron-lucent layer to proteolysis reveals that proteins are also relevant in building up the cyst-wall glucan skeleton (Roth et al. 1997). Interestingly beta-D-glucan can be detected in sera obtained from...

Macrophages and Cancer

Like NK cells, macrophages do not recognize foreign antigens. In addition, they do not recognize self-proteins. Their activation mechanisms are poorly understood but may involve receptors for certain carbohydrates, complement, and other proteins. Although bacterial products are among the most potent activators, macrophages can also be activated by contact with tumor cells. Macrophages destroy foreign substances by phagocytosis (ingestion) by secretion of proteases, hydrogen peroxide, or other enzymes or radical species or by secretion of certain cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor, as discussed above.

Clinical Utility of Testing

MCAD deficiency is a disease that can be treated if promptly diagnosed in the early postnatal period. Precautions, such as avoidance of fasting and saturated fats and ingestion of carbohydrates prior to bedtime, can eliminate the symptoms and related complications of the disease. Although prenatal diagnosis on chorionic villus sampling or cultured amniocytes using biochemical or molecular genetic testing, or both, is possible, with the inherent risks of the procedures, it may offer no advantage to postnatal testing of acylcarnitines and other metabolites character

Carbohydrate Catabolism

All plant carbohydrates are derived from photosynthesis, the process during which CO2 from the atmosphere is fixed and converted to carbohydrates with energy from light. The carbohydrates that are generated during photosynthesis form the building blocks for all other carbon-based compounds in the cell, including the phenolic compounds. The precursors for plant phenolic compounds are derived from two catabolic processes in the plant cell glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway. For detailed

Interdependence A Key Theme In Ecology

Interdependence is a key theme found throughout ecology. For example, you could not survive without the plants and other photosynthetic organisms that produce oxygen. Your cells need oxygen to release the energy in food, and cells will die if deprived of oxygen for even a few minutes. Conversely, photosynthetic organisms depend on the release of carbon dioxide gas by the cellular respiration of other organisms, such as humans, and geochemical processes, such as volcanic eruptions. Carbon dioxide gas is an essential raw material for making carbohydrates by photosynthesizers.

Fluid and electrolyte resuscitation

Fatty foods should be avoided. Well-tolerated foods include complex carbohydrates (rice, wheat, potatoes, bread, and cereals), lean meats, yogurt, fruits, and vegetables. Diarrhea often is associated with a reduction in intestinal lactase. A lactose-free milk preparation may be substituted if lactose intolerance becomes apparent.

Biological Effects

The main biological function of ACTH is the stimulation of the adrenal cortex. ACTH elicits an increase in the production of glucocorticoids, mineralocorti-coids and androgenic steroids, collectively labeled as corticosteroids. Glucocorticoids are so named because they promote the mobilization of energy by carbohydrates and mineralocorticoids because they influence water and salt homeostasis. Aldosterone is the most potent mineralocorticoid as it accounts for 95 of activity in this class of corticosteroids. They control primarily electrolyte home-ostasis by targeting to the distal tubules of the kidney to increase sodium resorption and reduce potassium elimination, thereby maintaining osmotic balance in the urine and preventing serum acidosis.

Stabilizing excipients used in final product formulations

Serum albumin addition has been shown to stabilize various different polypeptides (Table 6.8). HSA is often employed in the case of biopharmaceuticals destined for parenteral administration to humans. In many cases, it is used in combination with additional stabilizers, including amino acids (mainly glycine) and carbohydrates. Serum albumin itself is quite a stable molecule, capable of withstanding conditions of low pH or elevated temperature (it is stable for over 10 h at 60 C). It also displays excellent solubility characteristics. It is postulated that albumin stabilizers exert their stabilizing influences by both direct and indirect means. Certainly, it helps decrease the level of surface adsorption of the active biopharmaceutical to the internal walls of final product containers. It also could act as an alternative target, for example, for traces of proteases or other agents that could be deleterious to the product. It may also function to stabilize the native conformation of...

Milk and heart disease

There are strong statistical links between heart disease and both milk carbohydrates and nonfat milk. Seely published these studies in the 1980s, but the science has yet to surpass the propaganda.13 Interestingly, an especially strong statistical correlation emerges between heart disease and milk carbohydrates. Although a correlation cannot scientifically be considered the same as a cause-and-effect association, the data relating the increase in heart disease to increased sugar consumption (as noted in the last chapter) certainly suggest that the sugar in milk carbohydrates may be playing a similar role. Milk sugar, or lactose, is readily absorbed in the gut after being split into equal amounts of glucose, and another simple sugar, galactose. Further, the pasteurization process appears to allow a more rapid absorption of lactose, increasing the rate of glucose delivery into the system. Consistent with this observation, pasteurized milk promotes weight gain more effectively than...

Anaerobically Functioning ATPGenerating Organelles

Organisms that contain anaerobically functioning mitochondria or hydrogenosomes often do not (solely) produce pyruvate as an end product of their cytosolic metabolism. In these organisms, carbohydrates can be degraded to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) via the usual glycolytic pathway. PEP is then mainly carboxylated by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) to form oxaloacetate, which is reduced to malate (Fig. 5.1). This malate, produced in the cytosol, is transported into the anaerobic mitochondria for further degradation (see later). Cytosolic malate formation is comparable to lactate formation in that it generates 2 mol of ATP, while redox balance in the cytosol is maintained.

Detection of proteinbased product impurities

Glycoproteins varying slightly in their carbohydrate content will vary in their sialic acid content and, hence, exhibit slightly different pI values. In such instances, isoelectric focusing analysis seeks to establish batch-to-batch consistency in terms of the banding pattern observed.

Current Dietary Guidelines

A number of national or professional health organizations have recommended guidelines for healthy diets, either for general health or focused on specific aims such as controlling obesity or diabetes, or preventing heart disease. Most current guidelines emphasize limitation of caloric consumption from fats. For example, the Chinese Ministry of Health guidelines for prevention and control of overweight and obesity in adults included moderate caloric restriction plus physical activity with an emphasis on diets with low fat content, complex carbohydrates (including cereals), and fresh fruits and vegetables 2 . In the setting of dyslipidemia, they also recommend limitation of saturated fat and cholesterol. The American Diabetes Association published a technical review of dietary guidelines for people with or at high risk of developing diabetes 3 . Recommendations for people with either type-1 or type-2 diabetes were to include carbohydrates from whole grains, fruit, vegetables, and low-fat...

Question And Answer Session

LEDEEN In fact, we're looking at that. I should mention that my colleague who did a lot of this work is here, Dr. Wu. He is in the process of doing it. Unfortunately, we don't have a clear answer, but it would take too many carbohydrates to make that much difference in molecular weight.

Substrate Switching And Metabolic Flexibility

Heart muscle is a metabolic omnivore with the capacity to oxidize fatty acids, carbohydrates and also (in certain circumstances) amino acids either simultaneously or vicariously. Much work has been done in the isolated perfused rat heart to elucidate the mechanisms by which substrates compete for the fuel of respiration. In their celebrated studies in the 1960s, Philip Randle and his group established that, when present in sufficiently high concentrations, fatty acids suppress glucose oxidation to a greater extent than glycolysis, and glycolysis to a greater extent than glucose uptake these observations gave rise to the concept of a glucose-fatty acid-cycle.5 The concept was later modified with the discovery of the suppression of fatty acid oxidation by glucose6 through inhibition of the enzyme carnitine-palmitoyl transferase I (CPTI).7 CPTI is, in turn, regulated by its rate of synthesis (by acetyl-CoA carboxylase, ACC) and its rate of degradation (by malonyl-CoA decarboxylase, MCD)....

Pharmacological Management

A-Glucosidase inhibitors such as acarbose, although generally less effective hypoglycaemic agents, may have some value in the management of the obese Type 2 diabetic patient. Although they generally have a neutral effect on weight, some studies suggest they cause modest weight loss and are thought to act by reducing the energy available from carbohydrates by delaying fermentation in the gut (86).

Inhibition Of Activation By Self Recognition

Multifaceted saccharide reactivity of the natural antibody tumour interaction. Evidence from several experimental approaches supports a role for polyclonal natural antibody (NAb) in the defence against small tumour inocula in mice. Knowledge of the NAb binding sites is essential for an understanding of their function. Pronase and neuraminidase treatment of the L5178Y-F9 T-cell lymphoma reduced and increased syngeneic DBA 2 NAb binding respectively and combined with monosaccharide inhibition, implicated asialo carbohydrates as

Hcholf Diets And Triglyceride Metabolism

Enhanced flow of plasma NEFA to the liver contributes to high TG levels in patients with endogenous, genetically controlled hypertriacylglycerolemia.50 No evidence points to such a mechanism during high CHO-induced hypertriglyceridemia. To our knowledge, the only reported comparison of plasma NEFA turnover rates in subjects receiving low- or high-CHO diets are by Schwarz et al.51 and Mittendorfer and Sidossis who found decreased whole body plasma NEFA flux after high-CHO diets and a trend of lower splanchnic NEFA uptake.51 Parks et al. found no modifications of the contribution of plasma NEFA reesterification to TG secretion rate in normo- or moderately hypertriglyceridemic subjects fed high-CHO diets.32 Mittendorfer and Sidossis52 showed that high-CHO diets decrease splanchnic fatty acid oxidation, suggesting that the percent of plasma fatty acids taken up by liver for hepatic reesterification was increased. Such a modification of liver fatty acid metabolism would be consistent with...

Photosynthetic Stages and Light Absorbing Pigments

We now shift our attention to photosynthesis, the second main process for synthesizing ATP. Photosynthesis in plants occurs in chloroplasts, large organelles found mainly in leaf cells. The principal end products are two carbohydrates that are polymers of hexose (six-carbon) sugars sucrose, a glucose-fructose disaccharide (see Figure 2-17), and leaf starch, a large insoluble glucose polymer that is the primary storage carbohydrate in higher plants (Figure 8-29). Leaf starch is synthesized and stored in the chloroplast. Sucrose is synthesized in the leaf cytosol from three-carbon precursors generated in the chloroplast it is transported to nonphotosynthetic (nongreen) plant tissues (e.g., roots and seeds), which metabolize sucrose for energy by the pathways described in the previous sections. Photosynthesis in plants, as well as in eukaryotic single-celled algae and in several photosynthetic bacteria (e.g., the cyanobacteria and prochlorophytes), also generates oxygen. The overall...

Three of the Four Stages in Photosynthesis Occur Only During Illumination

The photosynthetic process in plants can be divided into four stages, each localized to a defined area of the chloro-plast (1) absorption of light, (2) electron transport leading to formation of O2 from H2O, reduction of NADP+ to NADPH, and generation of a proton-motive force, (3) synthesis of ATP, and (4) conversion of CO2 into carbohydrates, commonly referred to as carbon fixation. All four stages of photosynthesis are tightly coupled and controlled so as to produce the amount of carbohydrate required by the plant. All the reactions in stages 1-3 are catalyzed by proteins in the thylakoid membrane. The enzymes that incorporate CO2 into chemical intermediates and then convert them to starch are soluble constituents of the chloroplast stroma. The enzymes that form sucrose from three-carbon intermediates are in the cytosol.

Synthesis Solubilization and Bioconjugation

For bioconjugation, several types of electrostatic, hydrophobic, and covalent binding have been developed for linking nanoparticles to biomolecules (Figure 10.3b). Electrostatic methods depend on charge-charge interactions between oppositely charged molecules such as a positively charged peptide and a negatively charged polymer-coated nanoparticle. Methods based on hydrophobic interactions utilize the entropic factors that force hydrophobic parts of the coating on the nanoparticle and the biomolecule to interact stably with each other. Finally, covalent conjugation techniques use bifunctional linkers to attach biomolecules and the nanoparticle. With a broad range of bioconjugation methods available 31 , it is now possible to conjugate nanoparticles with ligands, peptides, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, and polymers. Probe design also plays a critical role when the probes are used in biological solution, inside cells or in vivo. However, the probes need to be delivered...

Antonio L Andreu Ramon Martf and Michio Hirano 1 Introduction

Mitochondria are the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells. These organelles generate energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, via oxidative phosphorylation. By virtue of possessing their own genetic material mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mitochondria are unique mammalian organelles. Normal human mtDNA is a 16,569 base-pair (bp), double-stranded, circular molecule (1). The molecules contain tightly compacted genes for 22 transfer (tRNAs), 13 polypeptides, and two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) (Fig. 1). All 13 polypeptides are sub-units of the oxidative phosphorylation system seven belong to Complex I (NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase), one to Complex III (CoQ-cytochrome c oxidoreductase), three to Complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase or COX), and two to Complex V (ATP syn-thase). These subunits are synthesized within the mitochondrion, where they are assembled together with a larger number of subunits encoded by the nuclear DNA (nDNA), that are synthesized in the...

CO2 Fixation Occurs in the Chloroplast Stroma

The reaction that actually fixes CO2 into carbohydrates is catalyzed by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (often called rubisco), which is located in the stromal space of the chloroplast. This enzyme adds CO2 to the five-carbon sugar ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate to form two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate (Figure 8-41). Rubisco is a large enzyme ( 500 kDa) composed of eight identical large sub-units and eight identical small subunits. One subunit is encoded in chloroplast DNA the other, in nuclear DNA. Because the catalytic rate of rubisco is quite slow, many copies of the enzyme are needed to fix sufficient CO2. Indeed, this enzyme makes up almost 50 percent of the chloroplast protein and is believed to be the most abundant protein on earth.

Pleiotropic Actions Of Metabolism

In preliminary experiments, we observed that altered glucose homeostasis through feeding of an isocaloric low carbohydrate, high fat diet completely abolishes MHC isoform switching in the hypertrophied heart (Young et al., unpublished observations). One mechanism by which glucose affects gene expression is through O-linked gly-cosylation of transcription factors. Glutamine fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (gfat) catalyzes the flux-generating step in UDP-N-acetylglucosamine biosynthesis, the rate determining metabolite in protein glycosylation (Fig. 5). In preliminary studies we observed that overload increases the intracellular levels of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and the expression of gfat2, but not gfatl, in the heart (McClain et al., unpublished work). Thus, there is early evidence for glucose-regulated gene expression in the heart and, more specifically, for the involvement of glucose metabolites in isoform switching of sarcomeric proteins. This work is ongoing.

Evidence Of Cardioprotection By Mediterranean Diets

Typical traditional diets in Mediterranean countries (Table 12.1) are characterized by large intakes of cereals, vegetables, and vegetable-derived foods rich in complex carbohydrates and fiber, fresh fruit rich in natural antioxidants, and marine foods rich in polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids moderate wine consumption very small intakes of meat, dairy foods, eggs and sweets and high consumption of olive oil rich in omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acid oleate and antioxidant polyphenols as the main source of fat.6-7

Fat And Insulin Sensitivity

Himsworth first made the association between increased dietary fat and insulin resistance in the 1930s and since then much has been published on these effects. In a recently published review on the subject by Storlien et al. (22), the premise was developed that the type of fatty acids eaten may be as important as the quantity of fat in the diet. High-fat diets, particularly high saturated fat, are associated with the development of Type 2 diabetes and glucose intolerance, while the intake of long-chain fatty acids, in particular n-3 fatty acids, seems protective.

Alphaglucosidase inhibitors

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, such as acarbose, impair digestion of carbohydrates, reducing the amount of sugar that is absorbed from the small intestine. These agents are less potent than metformin or sulfonylureas and are often associated with gastrointestinal side effects.

Lymphocytes and the Antibody Response

When antigen binds to a B-cell receptor, that B cell becomes poised to respond. In most cases, however, the B cell requires confirmation by an effector T-helper cell that the antigen truly merits a response. Only when this occurs can the B cell begin dividing, differentiating, and, finally, producing antibodies. Compounds that evoke a response by B cells only with the assistance of effector T-helper cells are called T-dependent antigens these antigens are generally proteins. Antigens to which B cells can respond without the aid of effector T-helper cells are called T-independent antigens they are generally carbohydrates and lipids.

The role of glucagonlike peptide1 in the improvement of food intake fat development and diabetic state by nondigestible

In another model (mice fed a high-fat diet), we have also shown that OFS improves hepatic insulin sensitivity and increases plasma insulin these effects of OFS could also be due to a permanent intestinally released GLP-1, promoting perhaps in part progressive insulin sensitivity associated with reduced weight gain.

Carbohydrate And Insulin Sensitivity

Daly et al. (28) have recently reviewed the evidence and clinical implications of dietary carbohydrates and insulin sensitivity. This is a controversial area. Extensive studies in animals show a detrimental effect of diets very high in fructose or sucrose, particularly in association with induction of hypertrigly-ceridaemia. The more limited results in human studies show conflicting results, partly because of heterogeneity of design. Certain groups of subjects such as the elderly, sedentary subjects, those with established coronary artery disease, males and hyperinsulinaemic subjects may be more sensitive to very high intakes of sucrose and fructose than others.

Historical Highlights

The initial history of carbohydrates is the story of sugar cane and the human passion for sweetness. Although there is some dissension, sugar cane's origin is thought to be Papua New Guinea. It was probably cultivated from wild plants (still in existence) about 10,000 years ago at the time of the global Neolithic agricultural revolution. The slow diffusion of migrants carried it to India, Southeast Asia, and China. Sugar was mentioned by an Indian author in 325 BC. After the Arabs defeated the Romans, they brought the sugar cane from Persia to Europe and the Mediterranean where it failed to thrive, apart from the Moroccan coast. The returning Crusaders brought sugar to the European courts where it became an important and desirable luxury dietary constituent. Sugar cane was introduced to the Caribbean by Christopher Columbus on his second voyage, in 1493. The plants came from his father-in-law's plantation established in Madeira in 1492 (Canary Islands). They thrived and were dispersed...

Carbohydrate And Plasma Lipids

High-carbohydrate diets are reported to increase TG, mainly in short-term studies (29). However, most of these studies have been poorly controlled and have been very short term and thus the evidence is poor. Turley et al. (30) recently demonstrated that free-living healthy subjects randomised to a high-carbohydrate diet (59 ) had no detrimental effect on fasting TG concentrations over a six-week period.

Characteristics Of Algae

Many plantlike protists are known as algae. Unlike animal-like protists, which are heterotrophic, algae (singular, alga) are autotrophic protists. Algae have chloroplasts and produce their own carbohydrates by photosynthesis, as plants do. Older classification systems placed algae in kingdom Plantae. However, algae lack tissue differentiation and thus have no true roots, stems, or leaves. The reproductive structures of algae also differ from those of plants. Algae form gametes in single-celled gamete chambers called gametangia (GAM-uh-TAN-jee-uh). By contrast, plants form gametes in multicellular gametangia.

Choice of Dose and Composition of the Meal

The composition of the meal should be of high caloric content (approximately 800-1000 calories) where 50 of the content consists of fat. The FDA gives an example of test meal, which fulfills these criteria, which is composed of two eggs fried in butter, two strips of bacon, two buttered slices of toast, four ounces (about 110g) of hash brown potatoes, and eight ounces (240 mL) of whole milk 20 . This meal gives about 150 calories from protein, 250 calories from carbohydrates, and 500-600 calories from fat. Alternate meal compositions can be used, but it is important that the proportions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates are kept to give a similar caloric content to the proposed test meal. The description of the meal should be included in both the protocol and the final report.

Protists In The Environment

Photosynthetic protists are also critical components of marine and freshwater food webs. Photosynthetic protists produce carbohydrates. Larger protists and other aquatic organisms feed on these carbon-rich protists. For example, diatoms support large schools of anchovy, which sea lions eat before they, themselves, become the prey of orcas. Protists play an important role in the carbon cycle. Photosynthetic protists use carbon dioxide and water from the environment to make carbohydrates, which are taken up by other living things or used by the protists for cellular processes. When protists use the carbohydrates, they release carbon dioxide and water back into the environment. Some protists, such as slime molds, are decomposers that aid in the cycling of other nutrients as well.

Cellular Distribution of Antigens Detected by Monoclonal Antibodies

In other instances, the distribution of cellular antigens may be harder to understand. A particular antigen may be found in a wide variety of cell types with no obvious relationship in differentiation lineage or function. Milstein and Lennox (1980) named these molecules 'jumping' differentiation antigens. Springer (1980) noted that jumping antigens are usually glycolipids or glycoproteins with a high carbohydrate content, and that their distribution often changes when a cell moves to a different tissue. Jumping antigens were postulated to be involved in cell migration.

Current Dietary Recommendations As Applicable To The Older Person With Diabetes

If beneficial changes to the diet of an elderly person with diabetes are to be achieved, access to dietetic services is needed. The following topics should be considered body weight, physical activity and the specific micronutrient composition of the diet including carbohydrates, protein, alcohol, sodium, vitamins and minerals.

Determination of the Biochemical Nature of the Antigen

In general, the naturally occurring antigens are proteins or carbohydrates. Carbohydrates may be present as part of more complex structures such as glycoproteins or glycolipids. Lipids lacking carbohydrate are seldom recognized by antibodies, because they tend to form micelles and membranes, and thus remove themselves from the aqueous environment. Carbohydrates and glycolipids are highly immunogenic and antigenic (see Section 4.8). When mice are immunized with whole cells from rats of humans, antibodies against glycolipids are commonly produced (Hakomori and Kannagi, 1986 Stern et al., 1978 Young and Hakomori, 1981). While the distribution of individual glycolipid antigens is often confined to certain cell types (Feizi, 1981 Hakomori, 1981 Hakomori, 1984 Wiegandt, 1985 Rademacher et al., 1988), it is usually difficult to make any biological sense of their distribution (see Section 10.2). If it is desired to select for hybridoma clones secreting monoclonal antibodies against glycolipid...

Low Calories Long Life

A few individuals have also tried to extend their lives by eating carefully balanced, low-calorie diets. Science has not proved whether this approach really works, however, and most people probably would not want to adopt it even if it did. Some scientists think that eventually a drug or gene therapy will provide the benefits of a low-calorie diet without its unpleasantness. Alternatively, some nutritionists think that lowering the amount of carbohydrates in the diet will work as well as reducing calories. Carbohydrates, especially those in sugar and foods that are easily converted into sugar, such as candy, potatoes, pasta, and rice, raise the amount of insulin in the blood and affect the way cells react to this hormone. (Other carbohydrates, such as those in beans and whole grains, produce a much smaller increase in insulin.) Low-carbohydrate diets are popular today, and some nutritionists believe that such diets, even when they are not low in calories, can make people healthier as...

Bioaerosols and Disease Donald E Gardner PhD

Bacteria are free-living, unicellular organisms that can self-perpetuate without the aid of a host cell. Their chemical composition is not greatly different from that of other living materials. They are composed of water, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and various inorganic compounds such as sulfur, phosphorus, and salts. Nearly all bacteria are encased in porous but rigid cell walls that protect them from osmotic rupture and give different types of bacteria characteristic shapes. They occur in three general shapes spherical (coccus), rod-shaped (bacillus), and spiral (spirochete, spirillum, and vibrio). They also differ in size. Cocci range from 0.15 to 2.0 mm in diameter. The smallest bacillus is about 0.5 mm long and 0.2 mm in diameter, and the largest pathogenic bacillus may approach 1 mm in diameter and 3 mm in length. The spirilla are usually 1 to 14 mm long. An important fact associated with bacterial cells is that the ratio of surface area to volume is extremely high. This...

Basic supplement forms

When you examine a bottle of supplemental minerals, look for the term chelated, and note whether the label specifies that the mineral is bound to amino acids, proteinates, carbohydrates, or other foodlike forms. For example, some labels might say zinc (chelate). This means a form of zinc that is bound to an amino acid. Others might just specify boron (chelate), if the boron is bound to something other than an amino acid. Sometimes the label may be more specific. It might say, for example, that the product contains selenium as selenomethionine, which is selenium bound to the amino acid methionine. It's also not a bad idea to get at least some of your supplemental minerals as ascorbate (for example, as magnesium ascorbate), which delivers the mineral with vitamin C.

Cleaning Of Upstream Processing Equipment 1431 Introduction

Typical 'soil' types in cell culture equipment are cells and cell debris, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates in bioreactors these compounds can be present above the normal liquid level as a result of dried foam. In vessels where nutrient solutions are heat-sterilized in situ, denatured proteins and caramelized sugars may also be encountered. Bacteria may also be present in the cases of contamination during a culture, or following a long period where some water has remained in an idle vessel (this can of course be avoided by storing the vessel under sterile conditions or by drying it completely at the end of the cleaning cycle). Cleaning should also remove contaminants such as grease and other chemical residues resulting from maintenance or construction operations.

Listeria monocytogenes A Facultative Intracellular Pathogen

By normally nonphagocytic cells is triggered by L. monocytogenes-specific factors. Aside from the internalization step, the intracellular life cycle of the bacteria in phagocytes and in normally nonphagocytic mammalian cells is, however, similar. The pathogen first appears in a vacuole, which is subsequently lysed by the combined action of the pore-forming protein listeriolysin (LLO) and one or two phos-pholipases. The bacteria which are released into the cytoplasm begin to replicate while making use of specific transporters to gain carbohydrates from the host cell those remaining in the phagosome are killed and digested. Concomitant with the onset of intracellular replication, L. monocytogenes induces the expression of the surface protein ActA which, by the activation of the cellular Arp2 3 complex, induces nucleation of host actin filaments. The formation of a polar tail and the permanent polymerization of F-actin at the interface between the bacteria and their tails produce a...

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