Pathogenesis and clinical presentation

Rotavirus particles were first visualized in humans by thin-section electron microscopy (EM) of the duodenal mucosa of an infant with acute watery diarrheal illness [48]. The distinctive viral particles were soon identified in the feces of infants and young children with gastroenteritis worldwide [49]. Rotaviruses were found to be an important etiological agent of acute infantile diarrhea, and were soon recognized as the most important of the known etio-logical agents of severe diarrheal illness in infants and young children [18].

Rotavirus particles are shed in large numbers in the feces during the acute infection and are transmitted by the fecal-oral route. The viral particles are relatively stable in the environment [50], which exacerbates the rapid and efficient transmission of the infection. Speculation on the respiratory transmission of rotaviruses, due to the seasonality and rapid transmission of the infection [29], has not been substantiated by clinical or laboratory studies, although rotavirus has occasionally been recovered from the respiratory tract [51, 52]. Nevertheless, aerosol droplet and person-to-person spread does seem to be a primary mode of transmission.

Rotavirus infection has a short incubation period of between 1 and 3 days. The disease is characterized by the sudden onset of acute watery diarrhea, often accompanied by fever and vomiting [53, 54]. Although most rotavirus infections are relatively mild, approximately 1 in every 5 children will develop symptoms and dehydration severe enough to warrant a visit to a medical facility, and as many as 1 in 65 will be admitted to hospital and approximately 1 in every 293 children will die of rotavirus infection [8]. Rotavirus infection is often accompanied by serious fluid and electrolyte loss with dehydration, especially in small infants, which is related to severe damage to the intestinal epithelial cells [55]. Typically, the acute infection lasts for 3-5 days with diarrhea and fever, and vomiting is a predominant early symptom of rotavirus infection, which may undermine the effectiveness of ORT.

How To Bolster Your Immune System

How To Bolster Your Immune System

All Natural Immune Boosters Proven To Fight Infection, Disease And More. Discover A Natural, Safe Effective Way To Boost Your Immune System Using Ingredients From Your Kitchen Cupboard. The only common sense, no holds barred guide to hit the market today no gimmicks, no pills, just old fashioned common sense remedies to cure colds, influenza, viral infections and more.

Get My Free Audio Book

Post a comment