Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a ubiquitous intracellular DNA virus whose primary host is children and adolescents. The HPV is the viral cause of common and plantar warts as well as the sexually transmitted condy-loma acuminata and juvenile onset-recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORRP). The epidemiology of warts has changed over the past 30 years due to a rise in sexually transmitted HPV, which has not been completely prevented by condom usage due to the presence of lesions of the labia, scrotum and inner thighs. Despite papanicolaou (Pap) smears, which screen for HPV-related oncogenesis of the cervix, cervical cancer cases continue to occur with consequent health-care costs, morbidity and mortality. Similarly, male genital carcinomas occur as a result of long-term HPV infection. As a result, vaccination against HPV has been thought to represent the best route to decrease HPV-related genital carcinomas. This chapter focuses on cutaneous HPV infections in children and treatment strategies for genital and extra-genital disease.
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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.