In recent times, especially after the discovery and development of potent antibiotics, the etiology of ophthalmia neonatorum has changed signifi cantly. Despite cases of ophthalmia neonatorum due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections, chlamydial eye infections in the newborn became more the primary focus compared to gonorrheal eye infections [40-45]. Silver nitrate and acetate show no sufficient activity in prophylaxis of chlamydial eye infections and exhibit irritative adverse effects of chemical conjunctivitis including consecutive psychological adverse effects (impairment in eye-to-eye contact in early maternal-infant attachment), which are currently under discussion [46-50]. Many antibiotic and other aseptic kinds of eye prophylaxis have therefore been considered and evaluated for prophylaxis of ophthalmia neonatorum [51-55]. At present, aseptic eye prophylaxis with povidone-iodine at different concentrations (preferably 1-2.5%) is often recommended [56-63].
Nevertheless, one aspect did not change: the name for the procedure itself. Independent of which compound the prophylactic eye drops contain, the procedure of eye prophylaxis against ophthalmia neonatorum is often still today declared as "Crede's prophylaxis" [64-67].
Further, with the program "VISION 2020", the WHO states that ophthalmia neonatorum is still an important health issue today [68, 69], which reflects its persistent actuality.
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