As demonstrated in this article, pediatric age groups display important differences in host biology, predisposing conditions, epidemiology and presentation of fungal infections relative to the adult population. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in the field of medical mycology. Most importantly, an array of new antifungal agents has entered the clinical arena. Although the final pediatric approval of several of these agents remains to be established, the pediatric development is moving forward at steady pace.
Invasive fungal infections will remain important causes for morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised pediatric patients. The availability of alternative therapeutic options is an important advance; at the same time, however, antifungal therapy has become increasingly complex. In addition to information on prior antifungal therapies, microbiological data, existing co-morbidities and co-medications, a detailed knowledge of the available antifungal armamentarium and contemporary clinical trials is needed more than ever in the management of the individual patient.
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