Severe falciparum malaria is an acute systemic disease that can affect multiple organs, including those in which few parasites are found. The acute disease bears many similarities both clinically and, potentially, mechanistically, to the systemic diseases caused by bacteria, rickettsia, and viruses. Traditionally the morbidity and mortality associated with severe malarial disease has been explained in terms of mechanical obstruction to vascular flow by adherence to endothelium (termed sequestration) of erythrocytes containing mature-stage parasites. However, over the past few decades an alternative 'cytokine theory of disease' has also evolved, where malarial pathology is explained in terms of a balance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The final common pathway for this pro-inflammatory imbalance is believed to be a limitation in the supply and mito-chondrial utilisation of energy to cells. Different patterns of ensuing energy depletion (both temporal and spatial) throughout the cells in the body present as different clinical syndromes. This chapter draws attention to the over-arching position that inflammatory cytokines are beginning to occupy in the pathogenesis of acute malaria and other acute infections. The influence of inflammatory cytokines on cellular function offers a molecular framework to explain the multiple clinical syndromes that are observed during acute malarial illness, and provides a fresh avenue of investigation for adjunct therapies to ameliorate the malarial disease process.
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Everything you wanted to know about. How To Cure Tennis Elbow. Are you an athlete who suffers from tennis elbow? Contrary to popular opinion, most people who suffer from tennis elbow do not even play tennis. They get this condition, which is a torn tendon in the elbow, from the strain of using the same motions with the arm, repeatedly. If you have tennis elbow, you understand how the pain can disrupt your day.